The digestive apparatus must like
assure the digestion or assimilation different foods.
The digestion consists of reducing all foods in elementary substances simpler, able to happen to the blood to be used by the organism:
• Is like
power plant (power paper)
• Is for forming the necessary materials for the construction of the cellular architecture (
As we already know, the
of the digestive apparatus is to assure the digestion. The assimilation of different foods is obtained by its degradation in simple elements: fatty acid lipids, glúcidos in simple sugars (bears) prótidos in amino acids.
The set of these transformations needs combined mechanical and chemical actions. The mechanical actions consist of movements of mixed (
) and peristálticos (internal) The chemical actions require to digestive enzymes (also called diastasas) Lipasas degrades lipids, glucidasas glúcidos and the proteases the proteins.
The digestion begins in the mouth. By the mastication, the teeth crush and divide - mechanical action the foods, facilitating the
with the enzyme to salivar, the ptialina (glucidasa) chemical action - Therefore, the saliva (1 l to 1. 5 ls per day)
sugars and dampens the mucosa. It transforms foods into
doughy nourishing skittle.
simple one via of step. The liquids descend by the effect of their own
. The solid foods are impelled by the peristálticos movements, towards the
, tensile cavity that performs 3
• gastric Motilidad, assuring the mixed one the foods that gives rise to the formation of quimo. This mechanical action is under the dependency of the parasimpático
• Degradation of foods, being responsible the gastric juice that forms from:
• Acid hydrochlorate,
• protective Mucus of the mucosa and.
• Pepsina, proteolytic enzyme.
2 ls of gastric juice per day. The secretion is regulated by the nerves vague (order
) and by the gastrina (hormonal order)
• Storage of foods:
stores foods and
quimo very progressively. The gastric evacuating becomes through píloro, in small amounts. This progressive liberation in the duodeno allows to the
yield. The gastric evacuation needs
total of 5 to 6 hours, depending on the composition of the food.
of the digestion takes place in the duodeno and the rest of the
. The duodeno simultaneously receives the pancreáticos bile and enzymes. Let us see the paper of
one of them.
• the bile is secretada by the hepatocitos, it is stored in the
vesicle and it is excreted when the food ingestion takes place. It is constituted essentially by
. Its paper is the one of emulsionar greasy, transforming them into micro - drops that are more easily degradables by lipasas pancreáticas and
. The bile prepares, this way, the digestion of the greasy bodies.
• On the other hand alkaline his pH neutralizes the acidity of quimo gastric.
• the pancreático juice.
The páncreas are the main
of enzymes of the digestion as they are lipasas, colesterolesterasas, glucidasas (amylase) and several proteases: tripsina, quimotripsina carboxipeptidasas, elastasa.
The pancreático juice allows the degradation of the glúcidos ones and the prótidos ones. He is only the able one to degrade fats.
The enterocitos also synthesize enzymes of degradation like glucidasas, proteases and perhaps lipasas.
Let us remember that they produce secretina that triggers the pancreática secretion.
With the digestion one
obtained that the complex foods can be absorbed and be assimilated.
How takes place this absorption or assimilation?
of you fold covered by
vellosidades, the organism increases of considerable way the faying surface of the
mucosa with the food. The set of vellosidades - that constitute the absorption organ represents
surface of 250 m2. He is widely vascularizado and the cells of coating - enterocitos - is specialized in the absorption
• the absorption.
cross the enterocitos. Amino acids and bears are absorbed by the capillaries and follow the route sanguineous (vein carries towards the
Fatty acids and glicerol are absorbed, and once in the enterocito they become to recombine forming triglicéridos; these surrounded by proteins form then microscopic drops or quilomicrones that through the lymphatic route reaches the veins and the heart, without happening through the
Five to six hours after to have produced the ingestion of the food, quimo
reaches the heavy
. The cólico transit lasts 24 hours approximately.
The nonsecret colon no digestive enzyme nevertheless,
an important paper in the reabsorción of water and mineral salts. The
of quimo produces
content. The hardness of lees depends on the duration of the cólico transit.
is colonized by an important saprófita
that it acts on the glucídicos remainders of the digestion causing reactions of fermentation and on the protídicos remainders causing reactions of rotting. Both reactions are accompanied by
It is triggered when the rectal blister is full. The defecación needs the liberation the anal sphincter, constituted partly by fluted
fibers. It is the only element of the alimentary canal that
The fecal skittle, is compound of food remainders nondigested.
, originated by prolonged injuries of the hepatocitos, characterizes by
and nodules of regeneration. Therefore, its definition is histológica. Although the
, also can be originated by
The risk of
depends, evidently, of the
mean consumption, beginning to be dangerous from 60 g for the man and of 40 g for the woman. The
does not influence in the risk,
the ingested amount. Nevertheless, important particular differences exist. The
is responsible for 90% of the cases of
in the man and of 75% in the woman.
can remain asintomática during many years: in these cases, usually it is discovered of fortuitous form during
clinical examination in hepáticos biological examinations.
• Generally, is discovered the presence of
after the appearance of some of the following symptoms:
, thinning, or complication: digestive, ictericia hemorrhage.
• In the clinical examination is registered:
• an increase of the volume of the
(hepatomegalia) preséntando sometimes one even atrophies severe or to nodular.
• Signs of
: esplenomegalia, ascitis, edema, collateral circulation.
• stellar Angiomas.
• Sometimes, can even have
neurological reach: polineuritis, upheavals of the bucket I lie.
will make the following tests:
• Analysis of the
insufficiency: generally, gamma - glutamil - transferasa (gamma G.
. it increases.
• Electroforesis of proteins to show the protídicos
It must be systematic. It shows to the volume and the aspect of the
He is indispensable to confirm the diagnosis.
1. Hygienic -
healthy nourishing regime,
balance, sufficiently rich.
The true treatment for the compensated
consists of leaving the
In order to control the abandonment of its consumption, it can resort to
measurement of gamma G.
2. Bases for the tratamento.
In many occasions the
reduces to the minimum the chemical medicine advice, because the
great difficulty in metabolizar them and eliminating them.
In order to protect the
, usually one resorts to
Medicinal plants that can be used in the treatment of the
Two hepatoprotectoras plants could be proposed:
Maria and Alcahofa.
Plants adapted for this