; al. Pfeffer - Minze;
Leaves and flowering tops.
Herbaceous plant stems of
or green square, simple leaves, opposite lanceolate and toothed, flowers weakly bilabiadas corolla with
clustered in spikes very tight, characterize this lively hybrid that is multiplied by stolons (M. x M.
The name of the different forms of this hybrid (originally appeared in England) is generally confusing: how
rubescens (Mitcham) is the most cultivated (USA, Europe)
white (palescens form) is grown in Russia and
called Hungarian, rubescens sylvestris) is grown everywhere.
oil that is seen as the active ingredient, also contains triterpenes the road, carotenoids and flavonoids. Some are highly oxygenated flavones. This type of compound is identical to that characterizes some of chemotype
oil. Its composition and variations of it have been the subject of hundreds of publications. According to Gillythe majority component is always the menthol (30 to 40%) together with Menton (15 - 25% in the case of Mitcham, half the
in white) and Menthyl acetate (most abundant in
white) are also the isomentona, neomentol, cineol, Menthofuran, germacrene
and other hydrocarbons. These proportions vary among cultivars, eg. Menthol can exceed 50%, the Menthofuran and isomentona appear to vary between 0 and 10%. The flowers and leaves provide
oiland numerous factors affect its composition: growing conditions, climatic variations, harvesting periods and procedures for obtaining it.
Although the drug
solid reputation (especially to relieve the pain
) its pharmacology
been very little studied. What
been studied mostly
oil. It dissolved in water, half acid ester polyoxyethylene, is active on the ileum, and most weakly on the guinea pig trachea in vitro (IC50 = 26 and 87 mg / l) Other research papers confirm the antispasmodic action and show that the menthol is the most active. Foster et al (1980) demonstrated the inhibitory action of the
on the contractions of guinea pig ileum, induced by acetylcholine.
oil of peppermint (3 mg / kg, iv) is active on the sphincter of Oddi of guinea pig: it increases the contraction induced by morphine. On the other hand, menthol, as other terpenes, prevents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits subjected to
regime rich in
from the HDL fraction,
, curiously, it inhibits the lecithin -
- aciltransferasa (enzyme involved in the transport of
by HDL) This
, mixed (32%) with other monoterpenes unicycle reduces the
of HMG CoA reductase, rat (2 g / kg)
attributed to the infusions were probably due to the flavonoids.
Observations on the Man.
Spasmolytic action of the
oil of peppermint permits, according to Dew et al. Obtaining good results in the pathology of colon. The use of
equally effective for the local relaxation of the
fibers in the test of the coloscopia.
been possible to give exceptional cases of poisoning, the drug
no toxicity, which is not the case with the
oil and its components whose prolonged administration (1 month) induces rat,
histopathological changes at the level of brain (oil Essentially, 40 - 100 mg / kg) due no doubt to the Pulegone. The daily dose, not surmountable, menthol
been set at 0. 2 mg / kg. The
, OTC, for
long time, is widely used in infusion as "pleasant and hygienic drink" to "facilitate digestion. " Under its various forms, the
is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of minor digestive
: digestions slow accumulation of gas, bloating, etc. and as colerética.
The leaf blade of peppermint measured 3 - 9 cm long and 1 - 3 cm in width, is acuminate, asymmetrical at the base and lined with sharp teeth. Main nerves and
(45 ° oriented) are prominent in the lower side. The microscopic examination revealed, among others, with head hairs secreting mono or octocelular about
foot long single cell. The
. Extract clorometilénico shows that the menthol gives the band more intenseand that carvone and Pulegone are absent. The
oil (> 1. 2% V / m) is also official, unless they contain 4. 5 to 10% of esters calculated in Menthyl acetate, 15 to 32% of compounds carbonyls calculated in the chin and least 44% of
- free, calculated in menthol (French Pharmacopoeia, July 1987)
G. GILLY, J. Garnered and
Menthe Poivre. Chemical Composition, Analysis chromatographique.
. Aroma, 71) 79 - 86, 1986.
étant given that M. x
. Jacquin - Dubreuil and G. G. AYMONIN précisent that l'on doit préférentiellement Parler of nothomophes (nm. les trois nm. majeurs du groupe étant: M. x piperita nm. piperita (M. noire) nm
(M. bEtant given that
. M. x is
. Jacquin - Dubreuil and GG AYMONIN précisent that l'on doit préférentiellement Parler of nothomophes (nm.
J. L. LAMAISON,
. CARNAT and
Différenciation des menthes Poivre, Mentha x piperita L. Mitcham type and type Hongrie, grown in Auvergne.
Plantes Méd. Phytother. 21, 252 - 261, 1987.
. JULLIEN, B. VOIRIN, J. BERNILLON and J. FAVRE - Bonvin.
Highly oxygenated flavones from Mentha piperita.
Phytochemistry, 23, 2972 - 2973, 1984.
B. M. LAWRENCE.
oils: peppermint oil.
. 13, 10 - 11) 66 - 71, 1988.
M. MAFFEI and
Chemical and morphometrical comparison between two peppermint notomorphs.
. 53, 214 - 216, 1987.
M. REITER and W. BRANDT.
Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the Guinea Pig.
Arzneim. Forsch. 35, 408 - 414, 1985; see also:
W. BRANDT, Spasmolytische Wirkung Ole ätherischer.
Z. Phytother. 9, 33 - 39, 1988.
. MANTOVANI and
of peppermint, sage and rosemary Essences and their major constituents.
Phytotherapy, 59, 463 - 468, 1988; see also
. B. FOSTER,
. Niklas, S. LUTZ, Antiespasmodic effects I. Taddei,
. MANTOVANI and
. Taddei and I. Taddei.
oils on Oddi's sphincter.
. 54, 389 - 392, 1988.
R. V. COONEY, J. NEMHAUSER and R. J. MORIN.
Inhibition of human lecithin
acyltransferase by monoterpenes.
Lipids, 19, 371 - 373, 1979.
. MIDDLETON, B. MIDDLETON,
. And G. WHITE DUNCAN BELL.
The effects of monocyclic terpenes on
S - 3 - hydroxy - 3 -
reductase methylglutaryl - coenzymme in vivo.
Biochem. Soc. Trans. 7, 407 - 408, 1979.
M. J. DEW, B.
. And J. EVANS RHODES.
Peppermint oil for the
Bbr. J. Clin. Prac. 38, 394 - 398, 1984.
R. J. LEICESTER and R.
Peppermint oil to reduce Colonic spasm during Endoscopy.
Lancet, 2, 989, 1982.
L. AUGISEAU, Y. BARBIN and J.
Une Intoxication by an infusion of Mentha.
Plantes Méd. Phytother. 21, 149 - 152, 1987.
Y. THORUP, G. Wurtz, J. CARSTENSEN and
Short term toxicity study in rats dosed with peppermint oil.
Toxicol Lett. 19) 211 - 215, 1983; id. Short term toxicity study in rats dosed with Pulegone and menthol, ibid, 207 - 210; id. Short term toxicity. THORUP, G. Wurtz, J. CARSTENSEN and
Short term toxicity.
whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.