, Herb's ass; al. Nachtkerze;
. Evening primrose.
This plant bisanual recognized by their large flowers pentacyclic, tetramer with notched petals,
stamens with obdiplostémonos with gynoecium tetralocular that leads to
housing loculicida that contains many seeds exalbuminadas.
The genre is originally from North
different species have colonized the coastal areas, estuaries and many other areas of light and sandy soils. The
come from crops, particularly in the UK, for seed production.
seed contains about 15%
, 24% oil, 40% fiber (cellulose and lignin) and lecithins. The mineral residue contains
high concentration of
. The main interest of this drug lies in its oil rich in
fatty acids called (AGE) as its lack causes numerous
The main oil fatty acids are as follows (media content) palmitic acid (7 - 10%) stearic acid (1, 5 - 3, 5%) oleic acid (6 - 11%) linoleic acid (65 - 80%) acid? Linolenic acid (8 - 14 %) The content of unsaponifiable (<2%) varies little with regard to the
seed oil (mainly ß - sitosterol and citrostadienol) O. biennis is not the kind that produces more quantity of acid? linolenic acid, and even some species do not contain. The acid? Linolenic acid (= acid octadeca - 6, 9, 12 - trienóico) is an acid C18 with three double bonds in Z configuration, followed as
matter diénico - 1, 4, which at times
appointed in Publications in physiology, under the name of C18: 3 (n - 6) "family? 6")
In younger men, the acid? Linolenic acid is formed by the delta - 6 - desaturasa (
- 6D) from linoleic acid produced by the food; the broker is obligated to acid - di - homo? Linolenic acidand arachidonic (the latter also is part brought on by food: eggs,
It is known that
. are precursors of eicosanoid (prostaglandin, thromboxane, leukotrienes) and components of the phospholipids in the cell membrane to ensure its smooth thanks to the curvature of the molecule "poly - cis. " The gap in
. is accompanied by skin
) growth retardation, hipoagregabilidad platelet, altering the synthesis of PGE1. It is also estimated that some factors reduce the
- 6 - desaturasa:
, hipoinsulinemia, senescence, dietary imbalances,
, malnutrition, etc. If the contribution of linoleic acid in the daily
, the acid? Linolenic allowed to act as
short circuit in the ceiling which is the stage in 6 desaturation, make - acid via di - homo? Linolenic - the immediate precursor of PGE1 and thus avoid the imbalance PgE1 / PgE2 (since the latter continue to be synthesized in part from exogenous arachidonic acid) which would result in imbalance in certain manifestations observed in case of shortage AGE.
Observations on the Man.
There have been several clinical studies, which are certainly limited, others in the face of double - blind placebo in order to realize the interests of the Evening primrose oil in many pathologies. The results are excellent in the treatment of
pain (identical to the effect of bromocriptine) Other tests have also shown, the interest of the Evening primrose oil in
eczema [435, 436]
 and even in
As the acid? Linolenic acid can be absorbed through percutaneous (Wepierre) have proposed
number of dermatological applications. The safety of the overdose of polyunsaturated fatty áciácidos (easily peroxidase) without making
concomitant of antioxidants,
yet to be proven.
The Evening primrose oil is part of the composition of many
products. It is also in the form of capsules. These formulas are used to treat
associated with lack of unsaturated fatty acids:
eczema, skin aging. Some authors propose the use of Evening primrose oil in the treatment of
The control of seed
is that of all drugs with oil. The oil content can be assessed by extraction with hexane and gravimetry. The physical findings (relative density, refractive index, viscosity) and chemical (acidity levels of
, Froth, peroxide) can be supplemented by quantitative assessment of the unsaponifiable and investigation of forgery. The analysis of the
. G. it is very easy through
. G. GC) of methyl esters, this same technique, if necessary,
detailed analysis of unsaponifiable. The use of
. thin layer chromatography) plates soaked in
nitrate, the GC (gas chromatography) and the HPLC (high performance
chromatography) to identify and assess the
. LACOMBE. O. QUENOT.
. GRIGNAC, J. GRAILLE, M.
Tentative de production d'acide gamma - linolénique par la culture de l'Onagre (Oenothera genre)
Oléagineux, 40, 35 - 40, 1985.
Evening primrose (Oenothera spp. Oil and seed.
J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 61, 540 - 543, 1984.
. DABADIE, M. BERNERD,
. Spielmann and N. Delhaye.
Intérêt d'une nouvelle plant oilcrops:
l'Onagre (Oenothera biennis or lamarckiana) Input in acid and gamma - linolénique troubles in the désaturation pathologie.
Méd. et Nutr. J. PACCALIN,
, J. GRAILLE,
. LACOMBE, O. QUENOT and
Recherche d'Oenothera acid rich in gamma - linolénique.
Oléagineux, 39, 593 - 596, 1984.
. Mendy, M. BERNARD, N. Delhaye and
Redécouverte d'une plant oilcrops:
l'Oenothera biennis. Intérêt de l'acide gamma - linolénique in
Bull. Acad. Nat. Méd. 167, 923 - 931, 1983.
Das Öl der Nachtkerze Oenothera biennis, therapeutisch und eine Quelle diätetish interesting Fettsäuren.
Z. für Phytother, 4, 531 - 536, 1983.
J. PUOLAKKA, L. MÄKÄRÄINEN, L. VIINIKKA and O. YLIKORKALA.
Biochemical and clinical effects of treating the
with prostaglandin synthesis precursors.
J. Reprod. Med. 30, 149 - 153, 1985.
The role of
fatty acids and prostaglandins in the
J. Reprod. Med. 28, 465 - 468, 1983.
. Pye, R.
. MANSEL and L.
Clinical experience of drug treatments for mastalgia Lancet, 2, 373 - 377, 1985.
. Horrobin and M. S. MANKU.
fatty acids in clinical medicine.
, 2, 127 - 134, 1983.
. LAMBINET and J.
and prostaglandins: Thérapeutiques effects of precursors for their synthesis of sous forme d'huile d'Onagre (Oenothera)
Ann. Med. Psychol. 141, 883 - 891, 1983.
M. S. MANKU,
. Horrobin, N. L. MORSE, S. WRIGHT and J. L. BURTON.
fatty acids in the plasma phospholipids of patients with
Br. J. Dermatology, 110, 643 - 648, 1984.
S. WRIGHT and J. L. BURTON.
Oral evening - primrose seed oil Improves
Lancet, 2, 1120 - 1122, 1982.
. Belcher et al.
Effects of altering dietary
fatty acids on requirements for non - steroidal anti - inflammatory drugs in patients with
double blind placebo controlled study.
, 47, 96 - 104, 198J.
. CARMMICHAEL. Ä. Ï. Ó Wier.
Gamma linolenic acid in
Lancet, 1098, 1986.
whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.