Disease information

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In order to be able to see or, it is needed that the images arrive clear and correctly to the brain so that can identify them and process, when this happens, says that the eyes are normal or emétropes.

But when the images do not arrive from clear form because the light rays arrive at a center or place from the inadequate eye, take place distortions that depend on the ocular problem and to this abnormal eye is denominated to him or amétrope.

The main problems of visual sharpness are:

Myopia. One appears when the light rays focus not directly in front of the retina and on her, causing who the near objects are seen easily, but the distant ones are difficult to distinguish. This problem must to a deformation of the ocular globe, that appears extended or because the crystalline has a smaller focal length to the normal one and it is corrected with concave lenses that extend the focal length or with refracting surgery.

Hipermetropía, when the light rays project the image in a point behind the retina, causing that the near objects are blurred. This problem is caused by a cornea or crystalline with little curvature or because the anteroposterior axis of the eye is shorter. One is made up with convex lenses that are heavier in the center that in the edges and shortens the focal length or with refracting surgery.

Astigmatism, happens when there is a deformation in several parts of the cornea, the membrane is transparent that it covers to the eye, causing that does not form a center on the retina, but a generally incomplete or distorted confused image. The lenses that correct this problem are the cylindrical ones, that channels light rays towards a unique focal point. Also it is corrected with refracting surgery. This problem causes pains in the eyes and head and much eye strain.

Other problems that affect the vision are:

Presbiopía or presbicia. Also it is known him as "tired Vista" and is developed with the age. It is caused by the hardening of the crystallines, that lose something of elasticity. One generally begins to declare as of the 40 years and the person who suffers it must move away the small objects to be able to see them with clarity. She corrects herself with eyeglasses to see close by and / or different graduation in each eye, that she must change regularly until more or less the 65 years of age, when the problem generally no longer increases.

Color blindness or blindness to the colors, is a suffering that it prevents to the cones of the retina to distinguish all the colors or certain tones of color. The majority does not distinguish between the red one and green and the others cannot do it between tones of blue and yellow. Although it does not have cures for this deficiency, if the problem worsens, are possible to be suggested dyed eyeglasses to distinguish between the colors that are confused.

Ambliopía, also well - known like "syndrome of the sluggish eye or vague eye", is the partial loss of the vision of an eye. In rare occasions this problem can be presented / displayed both in eyes, with very clear signs of tremor or involuntary ocular movements.

It is caused mainly by the presence of estrabismo and the fixation of "the normal" eye. Another cause can be anisometropía, or difference of graduation from an eye to another one, which causes a delay of the visual capacity of the defective eye. Also it is caused by congenital cataracts.

Estrabismo: Better well - known like "cross - eyed eyes". This suffering is characterized by the loss of the parallelism of the eyes, is to say that while one of the eyes watches an object, the other turns aside in another direction causing in many cases a showy aesthetic defect. This must to the alteration of muscles of the united eye to a bad vision mainly, that is to say, an eye is turned because it sees bad and sees bad because it is turned. The problem is corrected by means of the use of lenses with special crystals, the occlusion of the eye turned aside with patches, muscular exercises and in some things by means of surgery.

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