HOLLY () - HIPERnatural.COM
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Other names:

Castilian: Acebo, agrifolio, cardón, hill, caedón, Acebo Europe, the English holly, holly Oregon, sparking the holly, holly of Christmas,

Acebo of the Crocodile, click the holly, holly, the common holly, holly green.

French: Houx, Houx Epineux, Housson, the Grande Sorry, Franco de Bois, Greou, Agrifous, Agriou, Grifeuil,

Agabousse, Alquiroux.

English: Holly, holm, Hulme, hulver, bush, holytree, Crist's thorn.

Italy: Aquifolio Comune, Alloro Spinoso, Leccio Spinoso.

Dutch: Hulst.

German: Stechpalme, Hülsdorn, Cristdorn, Hulst, Hülse.

Principal Risks: by poison of ilex aquifolium is due to the ingestion of berries, which can induce gastrointestinal symptoms.

Summary of clinical effects: Ingestion of berries can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. And sleep.

drowsiness have been seen in children after ingestion of large amounts of berries. Although the fatal cases.

have been reported only in ancient literature there are no recent reports of severe poisoning. Ingestion of.

berries of Ilex aquifolium associates for the most part with gastrointestinal symptoms. The eye damage can occur because of the thorny leaves.

First Aid: vomiting or gastric lavage can be indicated in recent ingestion of more than 5 - 10 berries in a child. Hospitalization is indicated if the amounts have been great.

Toxic parts: All parts of the plant containing the active ingredients (Aliharidis, 1987)

Gastrointestinal symptoms appear within hours after ingestion of berries and can last for 24 H. The severe symptoms can be observed after ingestion of many berries.

The deaths have been reported in the literature oldest (Lewin, 1929) but has not been confirmed by recent reports.

Toxins Key: Ilex aquifolium contains several toxins: saponin, the halls of Phenolic, terpenoids, sterols, the.

alkaloids, anthocyanins (Thomas, 1980, Alikaridis 1987)

Description of the plant: Ilex aquifolium is an evergreen tree of 1 - 20 meters high. Leaves: dark green, shine, it has spines, very tough, The flowers are small, white, pinkish, fragrant; stood at the base of the leaves (April - July) The fruit is red berries of 8 mm in diameter. Each berry contains 4 seeds (from August to October December)

Habitat: Ilex aquifolium grows in forests, parks, gardens and in areas of plains and mountains. The plant is native to Europe. It is grown as an ornamental tree in North America and North Africa.

Toxic parts: The leaves, bark, berries contain active ingredients; no information available on roots.

The toxin (toxin) Several active ingredients have been identified: Phenolic derivatives: vanillic acid, P - hydroxybenzoic.

The (fruit) acid anthocyanin: cyanidin - 3 - xylosylglucoside (fruit) pelargonidin - 3 - GLUCOSIDE; Flavonoids: quercetin - 3 - rutinoside (leaves)

Terpenoids: alpha - amyrin (bark, leaves, fruit) ursolic acid (leaves, fruit) acid.

leaves) from oleanolic; lactone (fruit) of ilex; Sterols: ergosterol (leaves) beta - sitosterol (fruit) The alkaloids: theobromine.

The fatty acids: acid (leaves) for pentadecanoic; acid (leaves) from PALMITIC; acid (leaves) from STEARIC;

acid (leaves) of arachidic; acid (leaves) from OLEIC; acid (leaves) of linolenic; Alkanes: leaves, fruit) Cyanogenic glucosidase:

Uses: In folk medicine, Ilex aquifolium (infusion or decoction of dried leaves) is traditionally used.

to intermittent fever and rheumatism; antipiréticas for their properties, astringent, the effects of.

diuretic and expectorant (Alikaridis, 1987) Ilex aquifolium is also used occasionally in homeopathic.

The plant is native to Europe but is also cultivated in North America and North Africa.


Mechanism of action.

The exact mode of action is unknown. Gastrointestinal symptoms may be due to the mouse. However, no specific toxin responsible for the symptoms have been identified.


Clinical and Toxicological.


Alikaridis F (1987) Natural constituents of ilex species. J.

Ethnopharmacol 20: 121 - 144.

Arena JM (1979) Are holly berries toxic? letter) J Am Med.

Assoc 242: 2341.

Balansard Flandrin J & P (1951) Heterosides of the leaves of.

the holly tree (Ilex aquifolium) Chem Abst 45: 7307.

Bate - Smith EC (1962) The constituents of plants of Phenolic.

their taxonomic significance I. Dicotyledons. J Linnean Soc.

Botany) 58: 95 - 173.

Bohnic P (1959) Contribution to the knowledge of the.

chemistry of holly (Ilex aquifolium) Farm Vestn (L. jubljana)

10: 57 - 58.

Bohnic P (1967) Determination of theobromine in Ilex.

aquifolium. Farmacevtski Vestnik 18: 9 - 20.

Budzikiewicz H, Thomas H (1980) p - cumaroxy - ursolsaure, ein.

neuer inhaltstoff von Ilex aquifolium. L Z Naturforsch 35b:

230 - 231.

Catalano S, Marsili A, Morell I, L Pistelli, Scartoni V.

Constituents of the leaves of Ilex aquifolium. Planta Medica.

33: 416 - 417.

Crombie WM (1958) Fatty acids in leaves and chloroplasts. J.

Experimen Botany 2: 254 - 261.

Chrelashivili MN, Mgaloblishvili MP (1974) Reactions of the.

carbohydrates in leaves of different ages in evergreen plants.

during fall and winter. Turdy Instituta Bot Academiia Nauk.

Gruzinskoi SSR 27: 247 - 259.

Fischer R, Linse E (1930) Microchemical detection of abrutin.

and ursone in plants. Arch Pharmazie 268: 185 - 190.

Fritzsche S (1983) Les baies toxic. Médecine thesis of No. 303.

Strasbourg, France.

Garnier R. Resources of medicinal flora française.

Editeurs Vigot Freres.

Gessner O (1974) Gift Arzneipflanzen von und Mitteleuropa. 3e.

Edition, Heidelberg, Carl Winter, Universitätsverlag.

Ishikura N (1971) Paper chromatographic analysis of.

anthocyanins in the red epicarp of Ilex aquifolium. Botanical.

Magazine, Tokyo 24: 113 - 117.

Jungfleisch, Leroux (1908) Identity of alcohol with Ilicic.

alpha amyrin. Des Comptes returned to weekly sessions.

l'Académie des Sciences 147: 862 - 864.

Knapp R, Liskens HF (1954) Amino acids from leaf of straw.

plant species of forests with different soils.

Naturwissenschaften 41: 480 - 481.

Lechevalier (1947) "Le livre des medicinal plants and.

vénéneux de France. Encyclopédie biologique, Paris.

Mitchell J, Rook A (1979) Botanical dermatology. Greengrass,


Nooyen AM (1920) Urson and its distribution in the plant.

world. Pharmaceutisch Weekblad 57: 1128 - 1142.

Personne MJ (1884) South nouvel an alcoholic retired from the du glu.

houx. Compte returned to weekly sessions des l'académie des.

Science 98: 1585 - 1587.


Rodriguez TD, PN Johnson, Jeffrey LP (1984) Holly berry.

Ingestion: case report. Vet Hum Toxicol 26: 157 - 158.

Santamour FS (1973) Anthocyanins of holly fruits.

Phytochemistry 12: 611 - 615.

Schindler M, Herb M (1955) Chemistry of Ilex aquifolium.

Isolation of ursolic acid and RUTIN from the leaves. Arch.

Pharmazie 288: 372 - 377.

Thomas H, Budzikiewicz H (1980) Ilex lactone, ein.

bisnormonoterpen neuartiger strukturen aus Ilex aquifolium.

Phytochemistry 19: 1866 - 1868.

Thomas H, Budzikiewicz H (1980) Inhaltstoffe von der Frucht.

Ilex aquifolium. L Z Pflanzenphysio 99: 271 - 276.

LRG Valadon, Sellens AM, Mummery RS (1975) Carotenoids of.

various berries. Ann Botany 39: 785 - 790.

Vermont J (1977) Toxicology baies ou à des plantes à fruits.

bacciformes. Thèse Lyon.

Waud RA (1932) A digitalis - like action of extracts made from.

holly. J Pharmacol Exp There 45: 27.

Waud RA (1932) Further studies on extracts made from holly.

Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 30: 393 - 398.

Willems M (1988) Quantitative determination in Ilex.

aquifolium. Planta Medica 55: 195.


Author: Professor A. Jaeger, Dr. F. Flesch.

Center Anti - Poisons de Strasbourg.

Hospices civils - BP. 426.

67091 Strasbourg.


Tel: 33 - 88161144.

Fax: 33 - 88161330.

Tlx: 770 880 CHU STG.

Date: 26 April 1990.

Peer review: Strasbourg, France, April 1990.

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