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Meliloto; al. Echter (Gelber) Steinklee; English. Yellow (field) melilot.

Suminidad florida.

The herbaceous plant presents trifoliate leaves and small flowers together in elongated clusters. The fruit is a small pod ovoidea and indehiscent. The next species as M. alba Medicus (there is also the name albus) are also used in folk medicine.


The meliloto grows along the roads, in pastures and fallow land, usually in clay soils and saline. It is found in most of Europe, except in the extreme south, and is rare in the northernmost. The species M. Alba is also widespread.

Chemical composition.

Different species of the genus are little known about its chemistry. In addition to containing saponosides Genina which are derived from oleaneno (sojasapogenoles B, E, melilotigenina) M. officinalis also contains flavonoids. Have been isolated many polyphenolic compounds: flavonoids (di - C - arabinosil apigenina derived oligosacarídicos of kenferol, and coumarin derivatives) and especially after infestation by fungi, which are isoflavonoids fitoalexinas antifungal [on fitoalexinas, see 286] These, phenyl - 3 cromanos, are represented by specially pterocarpanos: medicarpina (3 - hydroxy 9 - methoxy pterocarpano and derivatives [281] It is also characteristic of this species presence melitocarpanos AE [282]

The active component of meliloto is coumarin (0, 4 - 1%) Although the extraction is conducted with the drug stabilized, which is isolated is not the coumarin, but the melilotósido, or acid - glucoside hidroxicinámico configuration Z. When tissues are injured, a ß - glucosidase hydrolyses heterósidos and the acid was released lactoniza quickly coumarin. Its maximum is in young leaves.

In the event the meliloto be contaminated by fungi, is likely to melilotósido metabolised in a dimer, the Dicumarol.

Pharmacological data.

Former work carried out in different experimental models (edema by carragenatos, formalinas well as heat edema) showed that the extract is meliloto anti - inflammatory and antiedematoso. The extract rich in flavonoids (associated with the rutoside) significantly inhibits the edema by ovalbúmina (rat) It is also active in the smooth muscle of vessels: venous flow increases, decreases capillary permeability, reverses the vasoconstriction caused by adrenaline, exerts a favorable action on the cardiac ischemia by coronary artery ligation (dog) On the other hand, increases the lymphatic flow and accelerates the reabsorption of edema following an experimental thrombophlebitis (dog) The total extract of the drug exerts a favorable action in wound healing and tissue regeneration. Coumarin increases tissue oxygenation by improving the microcirculation and stabilizes the membrane of red blood cells. It has proposed a mechanism of action to explain the action of this benzopyrone: boosting the power of proteolysis of macrophages and reticulo - endothelial system.

The Dicumarol, inducing a deficiency in vitamin K, gives the anticoagulant drug activity and, therefore, a certain toxicity (sometimes observed in the animals)

Observations on the Man.

Numerous clinical observations indicate the interest of the association of meliloto and flavonoids, both therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, in the case of lymph edemaand, more generally, in all manifestations of the normal vascular insufficiency. The activity of this association has been confirmed by a study versus placebo in the muscle hemodynamics with Xenon133.


The meliloto traditionally been used in phytotherapy (herbal teas and galenical forms as capsules and extracts liquid - water) to treat the subjective manifestations of venous insufficiency, and hemorrhoidal symptoms in the symptomatic treatment of functional disorders of the skin capillary fragility. The extract of dust and meliloto total criomolido is advised in the treatment of symptoms related to the inadequacy venolinfática (heavy legs, edema) and the hemorrhoidal crisis.

In Spain authorizing the use of this plant for venous insufficiency as heavier legs and hemorrhoids. Functional disorders of the skin capillary fragility as petechiae, and so on.

The drug.

The stem canalicular presents alternate trifoliate leaves with stipules lanceolate. The inflorescence is an elongated cluster of yellow flowers. Goblet 5 presents uneven teeth, the banner of the Corolla is longer than the wings, which, in turn, are longer than the keel. The achenes, ovoid, ending with a short tip at the top, and often are surrounded by the cup. The leaves and stems have hairs TECTOR bicelulares curved at a right angle. These characters and the reaction with p - nitranilina dinitrogen decoction of enabling the identification of the drug. The C. C. F. made with a methanol extract revealed the presence of coumarin acid and o - cumare.


S. S. KANG and W. S. WOO.

Melilotigenin, a new sapogenin from M. officinalis.

J. Nat. prod. 51, 335 - 338, 1988.

G. F. Nicollier and A. C. THOMSON.

Phytotoxic compounds from Melilotus alba (White sweet clover) and isolation of two new flavonoids.

J. Agric. Food Chem. 30, 760 - 764, 1982; see also: J. B. Harborne et C. A. WILLIAMS, Flavone and flavonol glycosides, in: GF Nicollier and A. C. THOMSON.

Phytotoxic compounds from Melilotus alba (White sweet clover) and isolation of two n.

J. L. Ingham.

Fungal modification of pterocarpa phytoalexins from Melilotus alba and Trifolium pratense.

Phytochemistry, 15, 1489 - 1495, 1976.


Studies on the pterocarpans from Melilotus alba Desr.

Chem. Pharm. Bull. 30, 1986 - 1991, 1982.


Coumarins. In: The biochemistry of plants, P. K. STUMPF et E. E. CONN, eds. London, Academic Press, vol 7, p. 269 - 300, 1981.

P. R. CHEEK and L. R. Shull.

Natural Toxicants in feeds and poisonous plants, Westport, AVI Pub. Co. P. 186 - 189, 1985.


Bewáhrte Wirksubstanzen aus Naturstoffen - Steinklee.

Notabene Medici, 10, 550 - 555, 1980.


Phytoalexins, Glasgow, Blackie, 1982; notamment: JL Ingham: phytoalexins from the Leguminosae, p. 21 - 80)


The pharmacology of benzopyrone derivatives and related compounds, Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó, 1988.


Apropos of the action associant extrait d'une preparation of mélilot routine hydrosoluble et sur les membres des troubles trophiques lower vasculaire d'origine.

Lille Med. 20, suppl) 76 - 78, 1975, see also: C. GÜNTHER, Zur PHF. DESMONS and M. SIMONS.

Apropos of the action associant extrait d'une preparation of mélilo.


Etude in double aveugle contre placebo de l'activité d'Esberiven ® veinotonique: hémodynamique musculaire de l'évolution des membres lower assessed grâcee au xenon 133.

Act. Med. Int. Angiology, 5, 88) 1 - 4, 1989.

Mélilot, toxicologique dossier. Travaux des Laboratoires Arkopharma.

Diseases whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.


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