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California poppy; al. Kalifornischer Mohn, Schlafmützchen; English. California poppy. Usually annual herbaceous plant. Presents a stem that reclines first and then straightens. Its leaves are tripennatífidas, agreed. It has flowers actinomorphic, dimeric, with four petals free whose color can range from yellow to red. The fruit is a capsule with two valves dehiscent.

Part Air.

* Not to be confused with Elsholtzia (Lamiácea)

Usually annual herbaceous plant. Presents a stem that reclines first and then straightens. Its leaves are tripennatífidas, agreed. It has flowers actinomorphic, dimeric, with four petals free whose color can range from yellow to red. The fruit is a capsule with two valves dehiscent.


The plant is being developed in vast areas and coastal dunes, as well as in plains, valleys and arid in the margins of the deserts of California. Has managed to adapt to European soil, where it is grown for its ornamental use later.

Chemical composition.

The drug contains phytosterols, carotenoids, flavonoids, heterósidos cianogenéticos. All organs of the plant contain many alkaloids isoquinoleínicos, divided into six distinct structural groups: protopinas (especially alocriptopina) aporfinas (laurotetanina, glaucina, isocoridina) benzofenantridinas (sanguinarine, celeritrina, celidonina, celilutina, dihidromacarpina) Protoberberinas (& - canadina, coptisina. and bencilisoquinoleínas are frequent in Papaveráceas and Fumariáceas. The last group, that of Pavin, the distribution is more restricted. The six groups of alkaloids are present in the roots, the benzo [c] fenantridinas, especially sanguinarine, they are not in the air [25] or, as some authors, they are only present as traces.

Pharmacological data.

With regard to the pharmacology of the entire plant, it must be said that has not been much studied, though some of the alcoloides in its present composition has resulted in numerous publications.

The protopina is antispasmodic, its light anticholinergic properties were found in isolated guinea pig ileum. In the rat, it increases the fixation of GABA receptors in the synaptic membrane of the brain.

The alocriptopina and alkaloids are similar antifibrilantes, bradicardizantes accelerators and coronary flow. The pharmacology of benzofenantridinas has been studied, especially those that interact with quaternary derived biopolymers. The sanguinarine, inhibitor of the Na + K + ATPase dependent and of acetylcholinesterase, inotropic, bactericide and fungicide, is a bit toxic molecule, contrary to what was thought for a long time. The berberinas and aporfinas have also been the subject of numerous investigations [30] However, it is not known nothing about the pharmacology of specific alkaloids in this genre. A work published in 1988 shows that it is sedative tincture and spasmolytic: split shows that some active fractions contain alkaloids and other non [34]

Observations on the Man.

Although pharmacological studies available did not provide any indication of the activity attributed to the drug, it is used as a sedative and hypnotic light. The studies "clinical" are few and even showed their effectiveness in sleep disorders, they have not been made compared to placebo.

The administration of the drug continuously for long periods of time, provides 86% of positive responses: decreased sleep time of reconciliation and improving the quality of the same. Another study in subjects with neuropsychiatric problemsshows that the administration to severe mentally ill is not effective, as well as in the case of insomnia in the middle of the night or early. However, the results are excellent in case of initial insomnia.


The whole plant is used in Germany in the treatment of neuropathies of the child. In France, the plant is used to treat the problems of reconciliation of sleep, insomnia in the second part of the night, anxiety and disruption due to an excess of emotion.

In Spain authorizing the use of this plant for the treatment of states neurotónicos (nervousness, irritation) of adults and children, especially in sleep disorders (insomnia)

Apart from preliminary tests conducted in mice and published studies on the sanguinarine, are available only fragmentary data on the toxicology of the drug.

The drug.

The stems, glauca, lightly striated lengthwise, have a regular section. The leaves, isolated, alternate, devoid of stipules are very finely divided into segments linear. The flower buds in the form of sharp - cone is surrounded by two sepals obsolete. Corolla verticilos has two alternating and bímeros. The androecium contains an indefinite number of stamens and provided important periginos, the gynoecium has two carpels soldiers in an ovary unilocular with parietal placenta, topped by a short style.

The fruit is a capsule dehiscent longitudinally by two valves. As in all Papaveráceas, the different tissues of E. californica are traveled by laticíferos tubes that secrete a latex hyaline. The alkaloid content of the drug can be analyzed by chromatography, from a tincture or an extract.


P. Delaveau. Eschscholtzia of California.

Act. Pharm. 208) 33 - 34, 1984.


Chemotaxonomy of Papaveraceae and Fumariaceae. In:

The Alkaloids, A. BROSSI ed. London, Academic. Press, 29, p. 1 - 98, 1986.

J. Slavik and L. SLAVIKOVA.

An alkalos from aerial parts of three Eschscholtzia species.

Coll. Czech. Chem. Comm. 51, 1743 - 1751, 1986.

B. GÖZLER, M. S. Lantz and M. SHAMMA.

The isopavine Pavin and alkaloids.

J. Nat. Prod. 46, 293 - 309, 1983.


Etude d'analityque couple Methods chromatographiques extracts d'Eschscholtzia californica.

DESS of Contrôle des médicaments, Châtenary Malabry, 1983.


In vitro study of the anticholinergic and antihistaminic activities of protopine type alkaloids.

J. Nat. Prod. 51, 1021 - 1022, 1988.

J. KARDOS, G. Blasko et M. SIMONYI.

Enhancement of g - AMINOBUTYRIC acid receptor binding by protopine type alkaloids.

Arzneim - Forsch. 36, 939 - 940, 1986.


Benzophenanthridine alkaloids. In: The Alkaloids, A. BROSSI ed. London, Academic Press, 26, p. 185 - 240, 1985.


Quelques nouvelles acquisitions dans le domaine scientifique et medical.

Act. Pharm. 245) 69 - 73, 1987.

For a complete bibliography go to A. BROSSI, op. it. as well as periodic reviews of: K. W. BENTLEY.

b - phenylethylamines and the isoquinoline alkoloids.

Nat. Prod. Reports, 1, 335 - 370, 1981; 2, 81 - 95, 1985; 3, 153 - 173, 1986; 4, 677 - 702, 1987; 5, 265 - 292, 1988; London, Royal Society of Chemistry.

R. Baldacci.

Contribution to the use of medical ville d 'Eschscholtzia californica.

Phytotherapy, 9) 31 - 32, 1984.

Homéopathie: pharmacotechimie Monographie et des médicaments courants.

Syndicat National de Pharmacie Homéopatique, vol 2, 1981.


Phytothérapie de l'insomnia, intérêt du jaune pavot of Califormie: Eschscholtzia californica, Papavéracées.

Doctoral Thesis of at Pharmacie, Diplôme d'Etat) Paris XI, 1986.


An approach to the study of the biological activity of Eschscholtzia califorrnica Cham.

Diseases whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.





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