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Boldo; al. Boldo; English. Boldo.


Peumus boldus is a dioecious shrub, perennial, leaves opposite, whole and elliptical. The flowers are grouped into peaks. The male has a pale yellow perianth more or less undifferentiated, female, have carpels unilovulados, ovoid. The fruit is a drupe blackish.


The range of the species is very narrow: originally from the area of Chile, which enjoys a Mediterranean climate, grows mainly in the hills dry and sunny in the provinces of Valparaiso, Santiago and Concepcion. It is found in Morocco acclimated.

Chemical composition.

The drug contains mainly essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids.

Essential oil, 1 to 3% of the dried leaves) is rich in oil oxygenated monoterpenes and monoterpenes: ascaridol, cineol, linalol, terpineol, camphor.

• Flavonoids. Heterósidos glucose, rhamnose and arabinose and flavonols: ramnetol, isoramnetol, Kenferol. Heterosídicos the links that form between the hydroxyl do the positions 3 and 7 of Genina.

• Alkaloids. Also present at the crusts, they are all alkaloids isoquinoléicos. The majority component is a aporfina, the boldina. This alkaloid tetracíclico is accompanied by other aporfinas and noraporfinas: isocoridina, norisocoridina, N - oxiisocoridina, isoboldina, laurolitsina, laurotetanina and its derivative N - methylated. Reticulin, a precursor of these molecules tetracíclicas, is also on the drug. The total alkaloid content varies from 0. 25 to 0. 50%. The boldina represents approximately one third of the total alkaloids.

Pharmacological data.

Through animal experimentation is found at high doses, the action colerética traditionally attributed to boldo. The increase in bile secretion, but clearly short - lived, does not appear to be due solely to the alkaloids, as demonstrated by an experiment conducted with different preparations administered to rats anesthetized: this increase is due to the synergy of different active ingredients of the boldo.

The total alkaloids cause, in dog, an increase of gastric secretion very marked and accompanied by hypersecretion at higher doses. These compounds were also inhibitors of intestinal tone. In rabbits, there are hyperglycaemic effect and inhibitors of intestinal peristalsis. Low doses depress the activity of the rat myocardial.

The boldina pure, tested in rats by injecting increases the secretion of bile 43 (5mg / kg) to 140% (40 mg / kg) In dog and orally, the boldina bile secretion and increases the urinary volume. Inhibitor of intestinal peristalsis (50 mg / kg per os, mouse) this alkaloid has the same effect on the myocardium that the total alkaloids, is slightly hypotensive and sedative CNS (100 mg / kg per os, mouse)

Observations on the Man.

Although it has been widely used, the drug and its preparations have been few experimental work in humans.


In guinea pig, the LD50 of boldina hydrochloride is the order of 25 to 35 mg / kg, iv, ten times higher per os. In the mouse LD50, per os, this alkaloid is 250 mg / kg, the extract fluid from 6 g / kg, the total alkaloids of 400 mg / kg. Therefore, the usual therapeutic dose preparations boldo boldina and there is no toxic manifestation (1% infusion, capsules of powdered drugs, boldina tablets of 1 mg. The boldina (preferably extracted from the bark of the tree) is used in the symptomatic treatment of hepatobiliary dispepsias home and constipation.

In Spain, authorizing the use of this plant as a stimulant of bile secretion in lithogenesis and liver failure.


For its own mechanism of action could produce bile duct obstruction. Do not use in prolonged treatments or during pregnancy.

Drugs. The road, cutting petiolated, has an oval elliptical limbo, hard and brittle, rough on the edges slightly retracted and the apex obtuse. The top surface is covered by numerous prominences which give it a granular appearance while the lower surface is smooth. Examined under a microscope, cutting the road shows an upper epidermis with cuticle thick, covered with bumps of hair TECTOR single, simple, in bunches. The cloud contains a large number of large glands with substance. The test includes a detailed analysis C. C. F. of the total alkaloids and valuations of ash, essential oil (> 2. 5% V / m) total alkaloids (> 0. 2% expressed in boldina and determined by acidimetry back in the middle ethanol) The boldina can be assessed by spectrophotometry, HPLC or by C. G (gas chromatography)



Monimiacées. In: A. AUBREVILLE and J. F. LEROY, Flore of New Caledonia and dependence, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 1982.


Essential oil of leaves boldo (Peumus boldus Mol. Performance and seasonal variation.

An. Royal Acad. Farm. 46, 325 - 334, 1980.

K. Bruns and M. KOHLER.

Uber die Zusammensetzung des Boldoblätteröls.

Parfum und Kosmet. 55, 225 - 227, 1974.

Parfum und Kosmet. 55, 225 - 227, 1974.

A new flavonol glycosides from Peumus boldus.

Phytotherapy, 47, 3 - 5, 1976.


6a, 7 - dehydroboldine from the bark of Peumus boldus.

J. Nat. Prod. 47, 525 - 526, 1984.


Alkaloids from the bark of Peumus boldus.

Phytotherapy, 54, 175 - 177, 1983.


Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients used in food, drugs, and cosmetics, New York, Wiley, 1980.


Canadian natural products in pharmaceuticals. II Peumus boldus.

Can, J. Pharm. Sci. 3, 84 - 90, 1968.

M. C. Appert - LEVY - COLLIN and J. LEVY.

Sur quelques preparations for galéniques feuilles boldo (Peumus boldus, Monimiacées)

J. Pharm. Belg. 32, 13 - 22, 1977.

P. Delaveau Boldo.

Act. Pharm. 250) 25 - 26, 1988.

Studies Laboratories Houde (Paris) quoted by C. MONS,

Contribution à l'étude du Boldo - Peumus boldus Monimiacées - botaniques and chemical tests, study of Pharmacopées - emplois. Doctoral Thesis of Pharmacy, Diplôme d'Etat) Reims (1987) E.


Influence of the preparation technique on the content of boldine boldo extract.

J. Pharm. Belg. 38, 97 - 100, 1983.

P. Piette, P. MAURI, E. WAY & P. CEVA.

Determination of isoquinoline alkaloids from Peumus boldus by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

J. Chromatogr. 457) 442 - 445, 1988.

Boldo, toxicological dossier Laboratories Arkopharma.

Diseases whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.


Dyskinesias bile.

Liver failure.

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