Peumus boldus is
dioecious shrub, perennial, leaves opposite, whole and elliptical. The flowers are grouped into peaks. The male
perianth more or less undifferentiated,
, have carpels unilovulados, ovoid. The fruit is
The range of the species is very narrow:
originally from the area of Chile, which enjoys
Mediterranean climate, grows mainly in the hills dry and sunny in the provinces of Valparaiso,
and Concepcion. It is found in Morocco acclimated.
The drug contains mainly
oils, flavonoids and alkaloids.
oil, 1 to 3% of the dried leaves) is rich in oil oxygenated monoterpenes and monoterpenes: ascaridol, cineol, linalol, terpineol,
• Flavonoids. Heterósidos glucose, rhamnose and arabinose and flavonols: ramnetol, isoramnetol, Kenferol. Heterosídicos the links that form between the hydroxyl do the positions 3 and 7 of Genina.
• Alkaloids. Also present at the crusts, they are all alkaloids isoquinoléicos. The majority component is
aporfina, the boldina. This alkaloid tetracíclico is accompanied by other aporfinas and noraporfinas: isocoridina, norisocoridina, N - oxiisocoridina, isoboldina, laurolitsina, laurotetanina and its derivative N - methylated. Reticulin,
precursor of these molecules tetracíclicas, is also on the drug. The total alkaloid content varies from 0. 25 to 0. 50%. The boldina represents approximately one third of the total alkaloids.
Through animal experimentation is found at high doses, the action colerética traditionally attributed to
. The increase in bile secretion,
clearly short - lived, does not appear to be due solely to the alkaloids, as demonstrated by an experiment conducted with different preparations administered to rats anesthetized: this increase is due to the synergy of different active ingredients of the
The total alkaloids cause, in dog, an increase of gastric secretion very marked and accompanied by hypersecretion at higher doses. These compounds were also inhibitors of
tone. In rabbits, there are hyperglycaemic effect and inhibitors of
peristalsis. Low doses
of the rat
The boldina pure, tested in rats by injecting increases the secretion of bile 43 (5mg / kg) to 140% (40 mg / kg) In dog and orally, the boldina bile secretion and increases the
volume. Inhibitor of
peristalsis (50 mg / kg per os, mouse) this alkaloid
the same effect on the myocardium that the total alkaloids, is slightly hypotensive and sedative CNS (100 mg / kg per os, mouse)
Observations on the Man.
been widely used, the drug and its preparations have been few experimental work in humans.
In guinea pig, the LD50 of boldina hydrochloride is the order of 25 to 35 mg / kg, iv, ten times higher per os. In the mouse LD50, per os, this alkaloid is 250 mg / kg, the extract fluid from 6 g / kg, the total alkaloids of 400 mg / kg. Therefore, the usual therapeutic dose preparations
boldina and there is no toxic manifestation (1% infusion, capsules of powdered drugs, boldina tablets of 1 mg. The boldina (preferably extracted from the bark of the tree) is used in the symptomatic treatment of hepatobiliary dispepsias
In Spain, authorizing the use of this plant as
stimulant of bile secretion in lithogenesis and
For its own mechanism of action could produce bile duct obstruction. Do not use in prolonged treatments or during
Drugs. The road, cutting petiolated,
an oval elliptical limbo, hard and brittle, rough on the edges slightly retracted and the apex obtuse. The top surface is covered by numerous prominences which give it
granular appearance while the lower surface is smooth. Examined under
microscope, cutting the road shows an upper epidermis with cuticle thick, covered with bumps of hair TECTOR single, simple, in bunches. The cloud contains
large number of large glands with substance. The test includes
. of the total alkaloids and valuations of ash,
oil (> 2. 5% V / m) total alkaloids (> 0. 2% expressed in boldina and determined by acidimetry back in the middle ethanol) The boldina can be assessed by spectrophotometry, HPLC or by
. G (gas chromatography)
. AUBREVILLE and J.
. LEROY, Flore of New Caledonia and dependence, Museum
d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 1982.
. WILKOMIRSKY and L. VALENZUELA.
oil of leaves
(Peumus boldus Mol. Performance and seasonal variation.
An. Royal Acad. Farm. 46, 325 - 334, 1980.
. Bruns and M. KOHLER.
Uber die Zusammensetzung des Boldoblätteröls.
Parfum und Kosmet. 55, 225 - 227, 1974.
Parfum und Kosmet. 55, 225 - 227, 1974.
new flavonol glycosides from Peumus boldus.
Phytotherapy, 47, 3 - 5, 1976.
. URZUA and R. TORRES.
6a, 7 - dehydroboldine from the bark of Peumus boldus.
J. Nat. Prod. 47, 525 - 526, 1984.
Alkaloids from the bark of Peumus boldus.
Phytotherapy, 54, 175 - 177, 1983.
. Y. LEUNG.
ingredients used in food, drugs, and
, New York, Wiley, 1980.
. GENEST and
. W. HUGHES.
products in pharmaceuticals. II Peumus boldus.
Can, J. Pharm. Sci. 3, 84 - 90, 1968.
. Appert - LEVY - COLLIN and J. LEVY.
Sur quelques preparations for galéniques feuilles
(Peumus boldus, Monimiacées)
J. Pharm. Belg. 32, 13 - 22, 1977.
Act. Pharm. 250) 25 - 26, 1988.
Houde (Paris) quoted by
Contribution à l'étude du
- Peumus boldus Monimiacées - botaniques and chemical tests, study of Pharmacopées - emplois. Doctoral Thesis of Pharmacy, Diplôme d'Etat) Reims (1987)
. VAN HULLE,
. BRAECKMAN and R. VAN SEVER.
Influence of the preparation technique on the content of boldine
J. Pharm. Belg. 38, 97 - 100, 1983.
. WAY &
Determination of isoquinoline alkaloids from Peumus boldus by High Performance
J. Chromatogr. 457) 442 - 445, 1988.
, toxicological dossier
whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.