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Hops, "cone" of hops; al. Hopfen, Hopfenzapfen; English. Hops.

Female inflorescence.

Herbaceous plant, vivacious, dioica, stems and leaves opposing volatile tri lobed or penta and ACORAZONADO at the base. Hops has bicarpeladas female flowers, with ovarian unilocular by abortion, grouped into cones or strobile. Male flowers in clusters in the armpit bouquets of leaves.


This genre, spontaneous at the edges and edges of the temperate forests of the northern hemisphere, it is cultivated in Europe for the production of female inflorescences, used in the manufacture of beer. Generally, men are eliminated feet in the crop.

Chemical composition.

The drug official is rich in minerals (especially potassium salts) It also contains tannins, amines, pectin, trace amounts of histamine, flavonoids. The components are the best known essential oil and bitter substances.

Essential oil. Its content may range between 0. 3 and 1%. It is rich in hydrocarbon monoterpenes acyclic (30% of ß - mirceno) unicycle (limonene, phellandrene) and bicíclicos (pinene) as well as hydrocarbons Sesquiterpenes: a - humuleno (8 to 33%) beta - Caryophyllene, ß - selineno. The oxygenates are represented by alcohol monoterpenes (linalol, nerol, geraniol. or aliphatic (eg 2 - methyl - 3 - butene - 2 - ol) whose content increases with time until it reaches 0. 15% after two years of storage, and aldehydes, ketones, esters.

bitter substances (15 to 30%) The main components are derived from Prenyl floroglucinol: Humulene, lupulona and their derivatives. These compounds, which consist of a chain - keto - enólica behave like acids and are very oxidizable.

Pharmacological data.

Numerous studies have actually helped clarify some activities traditionally attributed to the hops, especially the sedative, hypnotic, bactericidal and bacteriostatic.

• Shares sedative and hypnotic. As it has demonstrated that the ether extract lowers the curiosity and spontaneous activity in mice (Bravo et al. 1974) has also shown that the essential oil is a sedative. The 2 - methyl - 3 - butene - 2 - ol pure administered to mice, causing a deep narcosis, and in the rat, a marked decrease in motility, 50%, to administer a dose of 206. 5 mg / kg ip, that decline is not due to a relaxing effect.

• Shares bactericidal and bacteriostatic. The keto - enol of the drug inhibits the development of bacteria, Gram (and Gram (The activity varies in inverse function of the water solubility (CMI 2. 5 uM / ml for n - butyric - lupufenona of 11 uM / ml for Humulene on B. subtilis) which allows the activity level of lipophilic components of membrane. The extracts of organic hops are also fungistáticos in vitro.

The estrogenic activity attributed to the drug by many authors could not be attributed to a component in particular, in studies conducted in the mouse uterus, so it must answer seems to result from the synergy between its individual components.

Observations on the Man.

The only tests in humans were carried out with associations of valerian and hops, so that one can not deduce a clear conclusion. Although the 2 - methyl - 3 - butene - 2 - ol has never been studied in humans, some authors claim that this compound is an analogue of metilpentinol marketed as a sedative. Moreover, in rats at doses administered identical, the two compounds are active, which is a starting point for further studies. In the treatment of ringworm, have obtained very good results with organic extracts enriched with phenolic compounds [Kuroiwa, 1973, quoted by Merouze, 422]


Slightly used in allopathy, phytotherapy recognizes the painkiller drug and hypnotic properties, is used as a tea and baths. To the extent that the 2 - methyl - 3 - butene - 2 - ol not always found in galenical preparations, it is preferable to use an infusion freshly preparedor drug criomolturada.

Experimental data on acute toxicity are fragmentary. The keto - enol appears to be the most toxic compounds: 100 mg / kg per os lupulona kill 2 / 3 rats subjected to the experiment. Moreover, the hops are known for the problems Nerve sometimes observed in the workers of the breweries. Other authors speak of hematologic reactions. The drug has no spray acute and subacute (3 g / kg and 300 mg / kg / day, rat, per os) 423]

In Spain authorizing the use of this plant to stimulate the appetite in states of inappetence. Neurotónicos symptomatic treatment of states of adults and children (nervousness, anxiety and insomnia)

The drug.

The "cone" of hops, bitter flavor and aroma, are made up of heads of greenish - yellow color and shape ovoidal (2 - 4 cm) Membranous scales are formed by those who do not fully covered. These scales bracteolas - and - bracts are oval and translucent, and are covered by thin nerviaciones. Bracts, concave and regular, covering the bracteolas that are asymmetrical (7 - 15 x 10 - 20 mm) on a folded edge, with a achene at the base of the fold. Bracts and bracteolas have glands with oleoresin which appear as small grains of red - orange color that can be separated easily: lupulin. The microscope, the glands appear as a court fine of cells that contain oleoresin retained by a domed cuticle. The essential oil content of the drug is at least 0. 3% (V / m) its composition was analyzed by gas chromatography.


F. R. SHARPE and D. J. R. LAWS.

The essential oil of hops: a review.

J. Inst. Brew. 87, 96 - 107, 1981.

R. Hansel, R. WOHLFART and H. SCHMIDT.

Nachweis sedativ - hypnotisher Wirkstoffe im Hopfen. Mitteilung III; Der Gehalt von und Hopfen Hopfen an xubereitungen - 2 - methyl - 3buten - 2ol.

Planta Med. 45, 224 - 228, 1982.

P. Delaveau Le Houblon.

Act. pharm. 209) 33 - 34, 1984.

A. Piendl and G. SCHNEIDER.

Uber die physiologischen Eigenschaften des Hopfens.

Brauwelt, 121, 600 - 608, 1981.


Wirkstoff probleme des Hopfens.

Z. für Phytother. 4, 222 - 225, 1983.

R. WOHLFART, R. Hansel and H. SCHMIDT.

Nachweis sedativ - hypnotisher Wirkstoffe im Hopfen. Mitteilung IV: Die Pharmakologie des Hopfen inhaltstoffes 2 - Methyl 3 - butene 2 - ol.

Planta Med. 48, 120 - 123, 1983.

A. F. SCHMALRECK, M. Teuber, W. REININGER and A. Harth.

Structural features determining the potentia of natural antibiotic and synthetic bitter hop resins, their precursors and derivatives.

Can. J. Microbiol. 21, 205 - 212. 1975.


Antimycotic properties of hop extract reduced water activity in half.

J. Food Science, 45, 1175 - 1178, 1980.

C. FENSELAU and P. Talalay.

Oestrogenic activity is present in hops?

Fd. Cosmet. Toxicol. 11, 597 - 603, 1973.


Some recent advances in herbal medicines.

Pharmacy International, August) 203 - 207, 1986.


Hopfen - Mite - Sedativum oder Placebo?

Dtsch. Apoth. Ztg. 123, 1637 - 1638, 1983.

R. Hansel and H. H. WAGENER.

Versuch sedativ - hypnotische Wirkstoffe im Hopfen nachzuweisen.

Arzneim. Forsch. 17, 79 - 81, 1967.

A. M. DEBELMAS and Delaveau.

Guide des dangerous plants, 2nd ed. Maloine, Paris, 1983.


Toxic effects of Herbal Teas.

Archives of Environmental Health, 42, 133 - 136, 1987.


Chalcones from Humulus lupulus L.

Phytochemistry, 28, 1776 - 1778, 1989.


Le Houblen, Humulus lupulus L. medicinal plants méconnue, PhD in pharmacy (Diplôme d'Etat) Paris XI, 1984.

Hops, toxicological dossier Laboratories Arkopharma.

Diseases whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.



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