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Salvia common; al. Echter Salbei, Königssalbei; English. True (garden) sage.


The species officinalis is a leafy and highly branched subshrub, with lanceolate leaves gray - green, coarse and rough, violet blue flowers clustered in whorls with a few flowers forming a spike and are characterized by a androecium reduced to two stamens.


This perennial plant is native to the eastern Mediterranean regions. He prefers to warm the land and limestone. Grows spontaneously and in cultivation throughout the Mediterranean basin, from Spain to Turkey and North Africa.

Chemical composition.

There is great interest in the following components: acids, phenols, acid rosmarínico; flavonoids (1 - 3%) 5 - methoxy salvigenina and other flavones, most methoxyl at 6; triterpenes: mainly derived from the series of carboxylic oleanano; diterpenos (eg carnosol) responsible for the bitterness of the drug. The drug is known mainly for its essential oil.

Essential oil. Its content is between 0. 8 and 2. 5%, its composition has been studied. The main ingredients are ketones monoterpenes bicíclicas, the a - and ß - Thujone (35 - 60%, clearly dominate the a - Thujone, with rare exceptions) The essential oil also contains, as main components, camphor (10 - 40%, sometimes less) cineol, borneol (free and esterified) Among the other components identified (by gas chromatography and gas chromatography / mass spectrometry) are quite often a dozen oil mono - and Sesquiterpenes: pinene, canfeno, sabineno, limonene, etc. The proportions of these components can vary significantly depending on numerous criteria: geographical origin [443] time and frequency of collection [444]

Pharmacological data.

Of all the properties attributed to this plant, such as providing immortality, have been investigated only some of them.

Activity antiseptic: The essential oil of sage is slightly antimicrobial and antifungal in vitro, but its bactericidal activity, to below the essential oil of thyme, is nil compared with Staphylococcus aureus. The aqueous extracts are also antiseptic and anti - oxidants, with the latter property due to the presence of acid rosmarínico.

Activity antispasmodic. A small dose (0. 16 mg / ml) the essential oil inhibited by 50% contractions caused by electrical stimulation of isolated guinea pig ileum: camphor and bornyl acetate are the most active. Other components of the leaf sage are also inhibitors of smooth muscle spasms caused by acetylcholine, histamine or serotonin] It is interesting to link the activity with the spasmolytic numerous flavonoids, and in particular with that of the flavones polimetoxiladas isolated thyme.

Observations on the Man.

While it appears that the activity of the drug has not been the subject of many studies, there have been numerous comments that highlight the important neurotoxicity of pure essential oil. After a latency time, there is hipersialorrea, vomiting and convulsions and tonic or clonic. Among the seizures, remains the intoxicated dizzy, hypotonic. Studies in rats show that the activity is of central convulsive and convulsive events are starting dose of 0. 5 g / kg (ip) Electrocorticográficos and electromyographic data show that the central action appears at doses much lower than those caused by myoclonus. The toxicity is mainly due to ketones monoterpenes: Thujone camphor and the Dalmatian sage, camphor of S. lavandulifolia (which, however, is less toxic) The toxicity could be linked to an inhibition of oxidative metabolism of neurons.


Formerly used to treat many ailments, especially, to reduce sweating. Currently, phytotherapy proposed use (powder criomolturado, infusion. for the symptomatic treatment of various digestive disorders: flatulence epigastric, slow digestion and, through local, in analgesic and antiseptic preparations. The digestive properties to be recognized not appear to be related to the presence of Thujone, but with other terpenes of the essential oil and aqueous extract of the flavonoids. Therefore, not without interest for the proposition that some authors recommend the use of S. lavandulifolia (species particularly rich in flavonoids) Administering drugs to rats criomolida, does not cause toxic events in acute toxicity tests (2 g / kg) and subacute (300 and 900 mg / kg / day) per os.

In Spain authorizing the use of this plant for menstrual disorders (estrogenic action) astringent, antisudoríparo, antiseptic.


For its content in compounds with estrogenic properties are not recommended for use in men. Respect the recommended dose. You can advise on emerging home androgenic baldness.

The drug.

The shape and size of leaves vary according to their position on the stem. When you are at the base are petiolated, lanceolate and quite large (6 - 8 cm x 2 - 4) but when they're at the top are sessile, narrow, acute and smaller. All the leaves are pubescent, the edges denticulados, grayish white and rough. The odor of the drug is balsamic and aromatic flavor and bitter. Both are equipped with skin TECTOR tricelulares uniseriate hairs swollen at the base and sharp at the tip, which can be seen perfectly in the drug spray. Diacíticos presents stomata in the lower epidermis. The essential oil content of the drug official is at least 2% and no more than 3% (V / m) The main components of the essential oil can be identified by thin - layer chromatography.


S. officinalis has long been divided into two subspecies. Today is different from S. lavandulifolia Vahl.

I. C. Hedges, Salvia. In: Flora Europaea, T. G. Tutin, V. H. Heywood, N. A. BURGOS, D. M. MOORE, D. H. VALENTINA, S. M. WALTERS and D. A. S. officinalis has been subdivided into two long climbs.

C. H. BRIESKORN and Z. Kapadia.

Constituents of Salvia officinalis. XXIII. 5 - methoxy salvigenin in leaves of Salvia officinalis.

Planta Med. 35, 376 - 378, 1979.

C. H. BRIESKORN and Z. Kapadia.

Bestandteile von Salvia officinalis. XXIV: Triterpenalkohole, Triterpensäuren Prista und im Blatt von Salvia officinalis L.

Planta Med. 38, 86 - 90, 1980.


Sage oil. In: Progress in essential oils.

Perfume. Flavor. 14, 11 - 12) 90 - 94, 1989, ibid. 13, 06 - 07) 49 - 56, 1988; see also id. Ibid. 11, 08 - 09) 79 - 80, 1986; 9, 12 - 01) 65 - 71, 1984 - 5.


Yields and composition of sage oils from different regions of the Yugoslavian Adriatic coast.

J. Nat. Prod. 47, 520 - 524, 1984.

E. PUTIEVSKY, U. Ravid and N. DUDAI.

The influence of harvest season and frequency on essential oil and herbal yields from a pure clone of sage (Salvia officinalis) grown under cultivated conditions.

J. Nat. Prod. 49, 326 - 329, 1986; see also: G. E. GRELA. PUTIEVSKY, U. Ravid and N. DUDAI.

The influence of harvest season and frequency on essential oil and herbal yi.

A. BELKAMEL, S. Drouet and M. ROUZET.

About the essential oils of Salvia officinalis L. du Maroc, et particularités characteristics.

Al Biruniya, Rev. Tue. Pharm. 4, 7 - 26, 1988.

M. ALBERT - Pule.

Mythobotany, pharmacology, and chemistry of thujone - containing plants and derivatives.

Econ. Bot. 32, 65 - 74, 1978.

R. S. FARAG, H. SALEM, A. Z. M. A. BADEI and S. D. Hassanein.

Biochemical studies on the essential oils of some medicinal plants.

Fette, Seif, Anstrichmit. 88, 69 - 72, 1986.

I. Taddei, D. Giachetti, E. Taddei, P. MANTOVANI and E. BIANCHI.

Spasmolytic activity of peppermint, sage and rosemary Essences and their major constituents.

Phytotherapy, 59, 463 - 468, 1988.


Experimental pharmacological study of three species from genus Salvia.

Acta Physiol Pharmacol. Bulge. 10, 13 - 20, 1984.

C. O. Van den Broucke and J. A. Lemli.

Spasmolytic activity of the flavonoids from Thymus vulgaris.

Pharm. Weekblad. 5, 9 - 14, 1983.


Toxicity of some essential plant oils. Clinical and experimental study.

Clin. Toxicol. 18, 1485 - 1498, 1981.


Action d'essential oils of Saugues, Thuya, hysope et de certains constituants, south of the respiration coupe cerebral cortex in vitro.

Plantes Méd. Phytother. 19, 35 - 47, 1985.


The industrial wastes of the treatment of Salvia lavandulaefolia as a source of biologically active flavonoids.

Phytotherapy, 59, 62 - 67, 1988; see also, about the essential oil: J. CABO, M. E. CRESF. TOMAS - LORENTE, M. GARCIA - GRAU and F. TOMAS - BARBERA.

The industrial wastes of the treatment of Salvia lavandulaefolia as a source of biologically active flavonoids.

Salvia, toxicological dossier Laboratories Arkopharma.

Diseases whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.



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