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Gomo - oleo - resin.

C. Mukul is a shrub or small tree with thorny branches, bark Cinderella that emerges in fragments, has flowers just 4 - 5 in tight panicles at the ends of the stems, the cup is glands, reddish brown petals. The fruit is a drupe ovoid, red at maturity.


From Kathiawar in Gujarat, is also found in arid regions of Pakistan (Baluchistan) of Bangladesh and even Arabia.

Chemical composition.

Have investigated the different fractions (rubber, resin, essential oil) of this secretion. The fraction gum is a polysaccharide acid containing highly branched arabinose, fucose, galactose and glucuronic acid. The essential oil is characterized by the presence of derivatives mirceno. The biological activity is due to the resinous fraction, removable with ethyl acetate: the gugulípido.

The splitting of the components of this neutral gugulípido shows the absence of triterpenes, the presence of diterpenos of sesamina of triol long chain aliphatic and steroids, derivatives and Pregnana colestano.

Derived from Pregnana: E - and Z - gugulesteronas, isomers pregnan - 4, 17 (20) diene - 3, 16 - dione; are accompanied by hydroxylated derivatives: pregn - 4 - en - 16 - ol - 3 - one (R and S) pregn - 4 - en - 20 - ol - 3 - one present as traces. Colestano derivatives of cholesterol and gugulesteroles I, II and III: the latter are derived hydroxylated in 16, 20, 22 cholesterol or derivative? 4 Keto - 3 post.

Pharmacologic data.

Ayurvedic medicine gugulón medicinal properties attributed to various. The pharmacological research shows that the gugulípido is the support of the activity of lipid - lowering drugs. The splitting of the mixture, carried out by a trial in rat proof that the E - and Z - gugulesteronas are active substances and that the other components of the mixture enhance its action, no doubt influenced in its bioavailability: the taking 100 mg per os / kg / day x 30 days of these ketones induces a decrease of 35% cholesterol and 28% of serum triglycerides.

The use of experimental animal models (eg hypertriglyceridemia induced by ethanol in rat, rabbit hyperlipidemia) confirms these properties and indicates that the ratio of HDL / LDL is increased. Results are identical to the fraction steroids (200 mg / kg / day x 2 days, per os) in monkeys after indución hyperlipidemia by Triton WR - The Z - gugulesterona stimulates the thyroid function in ratsfor a direct mechanismwhich could explain the drop of serum lipids. It indicates another mechanism: the action of these molecules on the dopamine beta - hydroxylase and on rates of catecholamines [179]

Observations on the Man.

A study conducted in 1971 showed that about 44 individuals at a fraction of light petroleum resin significantly reduces the total lipids, phospholipids of beta - lipoprotein cholesterol and. According to Tripathi et al. the administration of 10 - 15 g / day of gum for three months, a decline of 25% of cholesterol and 30% of the triglyceridemia as well as an improvement in cardiac status. There is a performance fee of 80% in individuals with hyperlipidemia (colestererolemia initial> 2. 2 g / l) with 1, 2 - 1, 5 g / day x 4 - 6 weeks gugulípidosand several clinical studies confirm this activity [185] The comments related to the fibrinolytic activity and platelet aggregation are particularly contradictory. In 1986 two other clinical studies have confirmed the effectiveness of gugulípido in case of hyperlipidemia with efficacy rates of 59 to 77% [183, 184]


Unpublished claim that the gugulípido is neither toxic nor teratogenic in animal. The administration in man for four to six weeks does not cause any alteration of biochemical parameters, hematological and cardiac. Only the raw product is likely to cause some side effects.

In India the drug is used traditionally to a large number of disorders: mouthfeel pharyngeal affections, dyspepsia (in lotions) fever, rhinitis, bronchitis, laryngitis (in spraying) The gugulípido is marketed in India (equivalent to 25 mg tablets of gugulesteronas) and is prescribed as lipid.

In Spain authorizing the use of this plant for the treatment of circulatory disorders such as juvenile hypertriglyceridemias. Symptomatic manifestations of painful joints. As an adjuvant in slimming diets.

The drug.

The gomo - oleo - resin is produced in resin canals esquizógenos distributed throughout the cortical parenchyma of the bark of the branches. The resin - the spot is a bright yellow milky liquid - were collected after the incision in the cold season. The resin, once dried is presented in fragments vermiculares, yellow, or more or less brown or greenish.

The taste is bitter, balsamic odor. Crude drugs were emulsifies in water and can be characterized by successive additions on the fresh cut, followed by acetic acid nitric acid: there is a golden brown color feature. The expression with heat or solvent extraction separates the oil - resin fraction of the gum.



Guggul - a review.

Indian drugs, 09) 417 - 421, 1981.

S. BOSE and H. C. GUPTA.

Structure of Commiphora Mukul gum: Part II - Structure of the degraded gum.

Indian J. Chem. 2. 156 - 158, 1964; idem, ibid. Part III - Methetlation and periodate oxydation studies. 4, 87 - 89. 1966.

H. K. KAKRANI and G. A. Kalyani.

Anthelmintic activity of essential oil of Commiphora Mukul.

Phytotherapy, 55, 232 - 234, 1984.

N. And S. ANAND Nityanand.

Integrated Approach to development of new drugs from plants and indigenous remedies. In: Natural products and drugs development, P. KROGSGAARD - LARSEN, S. BROGGER CHRISTENSEN and H. KOFOD, eds. Copenhagen, Munksgaard, P. 78 - 93, 1984.

V. D. PATIL, U. R. NAYAK and S. DEV.

Chemistry of Ayurvedic drugs - I. Guggulu (resin from Commiphora Mukul) I: steroidal constituents.

Tetrahedron, 28, 2341 - 2352, 1972.

S. Nityanand, N. K. Kapoor.

Cholesterol lowering the activity of various fractions of the guggal.

Indian J. Exp. Biol. 11, 395 - 396, 1973; idem, ibidem, 9, 376 - 377, 1971; see also: SN Tripathi. M. L. Gupta D. Dwivedi and S. P. SEN, Regression of Hyperlipidemia with an active principle of Commiphora Mukul, Jour. Res. Ind. Med. 12, 11 - 16, 1975.

S. K. Bhargava.

Hypolipidemic activity of a steroid fraction of guggal resin (Commiphora Mukul ex Hook. Stocks) in monkeys (Presbytis entellus Dufresne) Plantes Méd. Phytother. 18, 68 - 73, 1984.

Y. B. Tripathi, P. Tripathi, O. P. And S. MALHOTRA N. Tripathi.

Thyroid stimulatiory action of (Z) guggulsterone obtained from Commiphora Mukul.

Planta Med. 50, 78 - 80, 1984.

Y. B. Tripathi, P. Tripathi, O. P. MALHOTRA and s. n. Tripathi.

Thyroid stimulatory action of (Z) guggulsterone: mechanism of action.

Planta Med, 54, 271 - 277, 1988.

M. SRIVASTAVA and N. K. Kapoor.

Guggulsterone induced changes in the levels of biogenic monoamines and dopamine b - hydroxylase of rat tissues.

J. Biosci, 10, 15 - 19, 1986.

S. C. MALHOTRA and M. M. S. Ahuja.

Comparative effectiveness of hypolipidaemic gum guggulu (Commiphora Mukul) fraction "A" - p - ethyl chlorophenoxyisobutyrate and Ciba - 13, 437 - His.

Indian J. Med. Res. 59, 1621 - 1632, 1971.

S. N. Tripathi and B. N. UPADHYAYA.

A clinical trial of Commiphora Mukul in the patients of ischaemic heart disease.

J. Mol. and Cell. Cardiol. 10, 125, 1978.

S. Nityanand, C. P. Asthana, P. P. Gupta, N. K. Kapoor and B. N. DHAWAN.

Clinical studies with "gugulipid", a new hypolipidaemic agent.

Indian J. Pharm. 13, 59 - 60, 1981.

R. C. AGARWAL, S. P. SINGH, R. K. SARAN, S. K. DAS, N. SINHA, O. P. Asthana, p. p. Gupta, S. Nityanand, B. N. DHAWAN and S. S. AGARWAL.

Clinical trial of gugulipid - a new hypolipidemic agent of plant origin in primary Hyperlipidemia.

Indian J. Med. Res. 84, 626 - 634, 1986.

K. Gopal, R. K. SARAN, S. Nityanand, p. p. Gupta, M. HASAN, S. K. DAS, N. SINHA, S. S. AGARWAL.

Clinical trial of ethyl acetate extract of gum gugulu (gugulipid) in primary Hyperlipidemia.

J. Assoc. Physicians India, 34, 249 - 251, 1986.


Gum guggul (Commiphora Mukul) The success story of an ancient insight leading to a modern discovery.

Indian J. Med. Res. 87, 327 - 335, 1988.

Diseases whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.


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