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Achilles yarrow; al. Gemeiner Schafgarbe; English. Yarrow.

Suminidad florida.

Achillea millefolium L. strict sense is a polymorphous species belonging to the section millefolium (Adans. Koch. and characterized by strands of white or pink flowers. They differ most recent 3 subspecies: millefolium, ceretanum Sennen (= monticola A. Martin - Donoso) and alpestris (Wimm. and Grab. Gremli (sudetica = (Opiz) Weiss)


Cosmopolitan, less common in the Mediterranean area, this species of grassland and edges of the roads that resists different ecological conditions importantly influence on their morphology. Its easy hybridization, its the aneuploide introgression and leads to multiply the phenotypes of transition, making their identification difficult.

Chemical composition.

The chemical composition of the drug has been studied for a long time, but probably is that the published results, at least the oldest non - covering A. millefolium strict sense, but rather to A. millefolium widely.

It has been described poliínas (ponticaepóxido) acids, phenols, nitrogen compounds (estaquidrina, hill. The amides poliénicas are concentrated mainly in the underground parts. Have been several isolated lactones Sesquiterpenes: 2, 3 - dehydro - desacetoximatricina, leucodina, aquilicina, milefina, acetilbalcanólido.

Essential oil. Its blue color is due to the presence of azulenes. However, it is recognized that the presence of azulenes is typical of the tetraploids (2n = 36) absent (with rare exceptions) in the hexaploid (2n = 54) According to the karyotype, the main components are pinene and Caryophyllene (essential oil with azulenes) and camphor, sabineno and cineol (essential oil without azulenes) It seems therefore, as indicated Lamaison and Carnat - that the rules of the French Pharmacopoeia have been established from tetraploids as A. Collin Beck [298. 299]

• Flavonoids. Regardless of the degree of ploidea, these pigments are represented by flavones and flavonols methoxyl at 6. In A. millefolium strict sense subspecies have the same profile in Genina di - and trimetiladas, but not in heterósidos 304.

Pharmacological data.

The anti - inflammatory activity traditionally recognized in the drug is given, of course, the presence of azulenes. In the case of hexaploid, others to be found liable, could be the flavonoids of their properties are known antiphlogistic. The same applies to the properties seen in spasmolytic animals. The hemostatic activity, has been transmitted by tradition.

Observations on the Man.

There seems to have been carried out clinical trials in humans. Former works relate the beneficial effect of the drug.


Traditionally, the flowering tops are used to relieve symptoms of digestive disorders usually minor (digestions difficult, flatulence) and the painful component of the espasmódicas colitis. Some works are defending their use of herbal medicine in the treatment of varicose disease. Folk medicine attributed to the drug properties vasoconstriction, decongestants, astringent and healing, hence it is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. The evidence of acute and subacute conducted, showed that the drug spray the tops of florida not cause any toxic manifestation.

The drug.

The stems, rigid, branched inflorescences level, sometimes reddish in some areas, have sessile leaves, and cut hair too. Each element leaf ends in a sharp tip. The chapters are grouped into curds and are surrounded by bracts membranous covering of brownish that as tiles. The microscopic examination of the cuts stem and leaf (which presents TECTOR hairs stand multicellular uniseriate and single - cell elongated head) must be completed by the valuation of the essential oil (minimum required by the Pharmacopoeia: 0. 3% V / m) and through its analysis by TLC to reveal the presence of chamazulenos. In France, only A. m. ssp. alpestris (Wimm. and Grab) = Gremli ssp. sudetica (Opiz) Weiss (hexaploid) can respond to this rule.


I. B. K. RICHARDSON. Achillea. In: Flora Europaea, T. G. Tutin, V. H. Heywood, N. A. BURGOS, D. M. MOORE, D. H. VALENTINA, S. M. WALTERS and D. A. WEBB, eds. Cambidge, University Press, vol. 4, p. 159 - 165, 1976.


Recherche d'azulenes chez les trois sous - espèces d'Achillea millefolium L.

Ann. Pharm. Fr. 46, 139 - 143, 1988.

K. M. VALANT - VETSCHERA and E. Wollenweber.

Leaf flavonoids of the Achillea millefolium group. Part II: distribution patterns of free aglycones in leaf exsudates.

Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 16, 605 - 614, 1988.

R. F. CHANDLER, s. n. HOOP and M. J. HARVEY.

Ethnobotany and Phytochemistry of Yarrow, Achillea millefollium, Compositae.

Econ. Bot. 36, 203 - 223, 1982.

H. Greg and O. HOFER.

Accumulation of polyenoic acid piperideides, chemical characteristic trend of Achillea millefollium.

Planta Med. 55, 216, 1989.

C. Banh - Nhu, E. GACS - Baitz, L. Radics, J. TAMAS, K. UJSZASZI and G. Verze - PETRI.

Achillicin, the first proazulene from Achillea millefolium.

Phytochemistry, 18, 331 - 332, 1979.

a) A. J. FALK, L. BAUER, C. L. BELL and S. J. Smolenski.

The constituents of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium.

Lloydia, 37, 598 - 602, 1974.

b) M. Y. Haggag, A. S. SHALABY and G. Verze - PETRI.

Thin layer and gas cromatographic studies on the essentia (a) AJ FALK, L. BAUER, C. L. BELL and S. J. Smolenski.

The const.

A. S. SHALABY and G. Verze - PETRI.

Cytological condictions and composition of essential oil of the Hungarian milefolii herba.

Plant. Med. 36, 291, 1979.

G. Verze - PETRI, B. N. Cuong, J. TAMAS, L. Radics and K. UJSZASZI.

The main azulenogenous Sesquiterpenes lactons of Achillea millefolium L. ssp. Collina as compounds in the plant kingdom.

Planta Med. 36, 273 - 274, 1979.

A. J. FALK, S. J. Smolenski, L. BAUER and C. L. BEL.

Isolation and identification of three new flavones from Achillea millefolium L.

J. Pharm. Sci. 64, 1838 - 1842, 1975.


Flavonoids as anti - inflammatory agents.

Phytotherapy, 49, 25 - 38, 1988.

Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment.

Specialty pharmaceuticals, herbal. Avis aux manufacturers concernant les demandes d'autorisation of mise sur le marché.

Official Bulletin, fasc. No 86 / 20 bis, August 1986.

A. Preitschopf, B. Michler and C. G. ARNOLD.

Achillea millefolium: occurrence, ploidal level, and proazulene variation.

Planta Med. 55, 596, 1989.


Charakteristische Flavonoidglykoside und der Gattung Achillea verwandtschaftliche Bliederung Naturwissenschaften, 65, 437 - 438, 1978.

Millefeuille, toxicologique dossier. Travaux des Laboratoires Arkopharma.

Diseases whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.





Irritable bowel / colitis spasmodic.

Dyskinesias bile.

Liver failure.

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