tamarindus indica

Tamarind (tamarindus indica) - HIPERnatural.COM
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tamarindus indica
Catellano: tamarind, palxuchuc (in Mexico)

English: tamarind.

DESCRIPTION: Form. Tree medium - sized to large, unarmed, evergreen or subcaducifolio under optimal conditions, 10 to 25 m (30 m) tall with a diameter at breast height of 1 m or more. Cup / Sheets. Copa rounded, big, wide and open, with coverage from 6 to 10 m. Dense foliage or thin, feathery in appearance and offering an attractive shade. Leaves alternate, paripinnadas, short.

petiolated of 5 to 15 cm long, with (5) 10 to 20 pairs pinnae whole, oblong, with the base and apex oblique rounded, almost sessile, with fluctuating length of 0. 3 to 2. 5 cm and a width of 2 to 8 Mm. Pale green.

Trunk / Branches: Trunk short, right and thick. Branches widespread, with the twigs in the form of zigzag (when pubescent youth)

Bark. External shades ranging from gray to dark brown (or roasted coffee) Flor (en) Inflorescences in clusters shorts and loose, axillary or terminal, pendulums, 5 to 10 cm long and 2. 2 cm in diameter, with (5) 8 to 14 flowers. Zigomórficas flowers, colorful (the buttons, red or pink) 4 - goblet lobed, yellowish white with reddish hues; corolla with 5 petals of different sizes, 2.

escamiformes and 3 small and large, oblanceolate, glabrous, pale yellow nuanced orange or red, from 0. 5 to 1 cm in length and are united by half. Fruit (s) Indehiscent pods, oblong or linear, somewhat laterally compressed and commonly curved, with an outer layer (epicarp) brown thin, dry and flaky crustacean (breaks irregularly on drying) a middle layer (mesocarp) combined with pulp fibers and a layer coriacea internal (endocarp) Sept. among the seeds, 1. 7 to 15 cm. long by 2 to 3. 5 cm wide and 1. 5 cm in thickness, containing 1 to 12 seeds. The fruits persist on the tree for several months. Seed (s) Indehiscent seeds, oval, laterally compressed, smooth, with the testa cafélustrosa of 1 cm long and bound together. Lack of nutritious endosperm as a reserve, presented a pair of cotyledons thick and radicle is small and straight.

Root. Deep root system. Sexuality. Hermaphrodite. Chromosome number: 2n = 24, 26, 28.

DISTRIBUTION: Wide distribution in tropical and subtropical regions of the country: Altitude: 0 to 1200 m. In.

ORIGIN / EXTENSION: Originally from the dry savannah of tropical Africa, grown in America, also in Asia and other tropical countries where they often had asilvestrado. It has been cultivated and often naturalized throughout the West and from Mexico to Brazil. Has been planted in South Florida, Los Cayos, Bermuda, Cuba and Puerto Rico. Panama.

HISTORY Introduced to the New World between the years 1700 and 1800, probably taken with the first shipments of slaves from West Africa. In Mexico it comes to finding ways in Wild in the Pacific coast, mainly in the states of Jalisco, Colima and Guerrero. Cultivated species widely in most tropical regions.

HABITAT: It is found in places with warm dry weather, although it can also thrive in climates cálidohúmedos. Its range of precipitation ranges from 800 to 1. 400.

mm per year. It grows along roads and is common around the houses. Thrives well in deep areas with good drainage, texture migajón - arcilloarenoso.

and a pH of 6. 5 to 7. 5, can however vegetating in slightly acidic soil, or grow in relatively poor areas calcareous provided he is given a good fertilization and with water for irrigation in dry periods. Soils: Fluvisols, Arenosols, Acrisol, Andosols. Tolerated from an alluvial soil to a depth and porous soil rocky.


EXPERIENCES WITH THE PLANT: Plant Sales / Production / Experimental.

India is the country that operates more extensively the tamarind. There are commercial plantations that generate about 250, 000 tons per year. In Tamil Nadu 9. 521 hectares are cultivated. The fruits produce 29, 880 tons of pulp each year. The Tamarindo has gained great importance under the umbrella of the Program of Social Forestry in Dharmapuri, Tirunelveli and other districts, where crops have been established on a large scale. Other countries with large commercial plantations are: Belize, Brazil and Guatemala.

CROP: Aspects of the crop. In the young stage requires good irrigation and fertilization to settle and once established, mature tree can survive without supplementary irrigation. Can be fertilized every 2 or 3 months with 6 - 6 - 3 NPK, using 100 ge increase gradually up to 225 g. The fruiting trees can be fertilized with 8 - 3 - 9 NPK, using 225 grams per application. While the tamarind requires little protection when it is a fruit tree that thrives with minimal care. The tree has a capacity of autopoda, however one can play a pruning training in younger to allow the smooth development of 3 to 5 branches. The most common planting distances are: 8 x 15 m, 8 x 12 m, 8 x 8 m, 12 x 12 m, 10 x 20 m, depending on soil fertility. Seedlings are planted variable in size from 40 cm to 2 m in height. Did not develop improved varieties that mature or are developed rapidly, but there are two types classified by the color of fruit: red and brown. The type coffee is the most common commercially produced in abundance. There are cultivars selected to provide sweet flesh. One in Thailand "Makham Waan" and the other in Miami. Florida (USA) called "Sweet Manila. The Tamarindo is classified as one of the 32 most important fruit species.

SPREAD: asexual reproduction. 1. Tissue culture. In India are used explants of seedlings, mature and anthers knots (tripe, embryogenesis) 2. Tallo. Brotes cuts or shoots (stump) Flaring up result. 3. Aviation Acodo. 4. Bud graft and graft. The method is more efficient and the side plating, but.

also recommend the approach. This will ensure the characteristics of the parent plant and a start of production at 4 or 5 years. Sexual reproduction. 1. Seed (seedling) The multiplication of the tamarind has been done routinely by seed because of its high percentage of germination. It is recommended to soak the seeds for 4 or 5 days and then place them in seedling beds to a depth of 5 cm. 2. Natural regeneration. 3. Direct sowing.

EFFECT restore / SERVICE ENVIRONMENT: Effect (s) restorer (s) 1. Padded / Coverage of litter. Contributes to the formation of soil organic matter. 2. Improved soil fertility / fallow. 3. Recovery of degraded soils. This plant has been used to rehabilitate sites where there were mining. 4. Conservation of soil erosion control. 5. Stabilizes sandbars. Service (s) 1. Nearly alive in the agrohábitats. 2. Barrera Fire (India) 3. Barrera windbreaker (in India) 4. Shadow / Refuge. Provides shade in pastures. 5. Ornamental. It is grown in courtyards of churches, parks, avenues, side roads, and gardens. Waste from the pods are a disadvantage for use on streets and avenues.

TOLERANCE: Plaintiff of. 1. Soil depth. 2. Soil with good drainage. 3. Light. The firm. Wind. Its branches are strong and flexible little affected by the wind and it is known that a tree is resistant to hurricanes. Hardy a. 1. And termite damage. 2. Fire. 3. Drought. Very resistant to drought. Tolerant a. 1. Flooding temporarily. 2. Salt spray. It can be planted near the coast. 3. Constant exposure to the wind. 4. Compacted soil and rocky. 5. Shadow. 6. Poor soils. 7. Shallow soil. 8. Alkaline soils. 9. Sandy soils near shore 10. Saline soils.

DISADVANTAGES: Intolerant a. 1. Fuego (seedling, adult) Sensible / a. Susceptible 1. Frost. The saplings are very sensitive to frost, but adults can support up - 3 º C without suffering serious damage. 2. Damage browsing. 3. Damage by rodents. 4. Termite Damage (wood) The wood is strong and durable but highly susceptible to attack by dry wood termites. 5. Damage mushrooms (stems, wood, roots, leaves, fruit) The fruits mature in humid climates are easily attacked by fungi. 6. Damage by insects (seeds, fruit, leaf) The fruits will come to infest with small beetles. 7. Clay soils. 8. Acidic soils.

USES: Bond. The seeds crushed and mixed with gum arabic is an excellent glue. The seeds contain starch (63%) protein (16%) and oil semisecante (5. 5%)

Coloring. Of leaves showing a yellow tinge. Fuel. Firewood and charcoal. Excellent fuel, generates much heat. Formerly he was used to produce charcoal for pólvora. Comestible. Its main product is the fruit, whose fleshy pulp and acid is appreciated to develop fresh water. In the industrial plan are developed pastes concentrates that are used in the preparation of soft drinks, candy and ice cream. The pulp constitutes 40% of the sheath and is a source of vitamin C and B. 100 g of ripe fruit contains 115 calories, 3 g protein and 18 grams of carbohydrates. Its acidity is due to the presence of tartaric acid, acetic acid and ascorbic. The flesh is a rich source of vitamins and important minerals and contains more calcium than other fruits. The young leaves, immature pods and flowers are used as vegetables in salads without the need of vinegar because they are acidic. The seeds are used as food, toast, soak and cociéndolas to remove the peel. Its content does starch, protein and oil. Its chemical composition is: water 11. 3%, 13. 3% protein, 5. 4% fat, carbohydrate 57. 1%, 4. 1% ash and crude fiber 8. 8%. The protein of the seed is rich in glutamic acid (18%) aspartic acid (11. 6%) glycine (9. 1%) and leucine (8. 2%) but deficient in methionine, threonine, valine and cysteine, which is considered a protein of low quality. The proportion of essential amino acids in the protein is 33. 6%. Seasoning / spices [result] The acidity of the pulp is due to the presence of tartaric acid whose concentration is 10 to 15%. It also contains acetic acid, citric, malic and Succinic, as well as sugar and pectin. The boiled sweet fruit is used as a condiment for rice, fish and meat. Construction [wood] Rural construction. Curtiente [result] The shell of the pod is rich in tannins. Fodder [leaf, stem, fruit, seed pods] Fodder plant for animal husbandry within a site. To make the seeds palatable to livestock, should be soaked in water for an hour. Implements of work [wood] Agricultural implements and tool handles. Industrial [wood] In India the wood is used to manufacture paper. The cover of the seed has antioxidant compounds that could be used as an industrial source, secure and inexpensive to preserve food. These compounds are: 2 - hydroxy - 3 ', 4' - dihidroxiacetofenona, methyl 3, 4 - dihidroxibenzoato, 3, 4 - dihydroxyphenyl acetate. Insecticide / Toxic [whole plant] Insecticide, poisons. Timber [Wood] The heart of the wood is quite hard, tough and difficult to work but took a good polish. It is used to cimbras, pillars, beams, woodwork, furniture, presses, poles, fences, railway sleepers, steel, construction of boats, wheels, rollers, sleepers, frames, pylons of rice mills and trapiches. Wood is sold in North America as "Madeira Mahogany. ".

Medicinal. Drugs official in the pharmacopoeia of the United States and other countries. Fruit flesh: antipyretic, antiscorbutic, uric acid and cholesterol. Young branches: dysentery, mouth infections in newborn children. Crust (cooking) asthma, amenorrhea. Leaf, seeds (cooking) worming and estomáquica. Root (cooking) diseases of the liver (bilious disorders) jaundice and bleeding. Seed. cooking) corrosion of evil. The pods are used as an astringent and appetizers. Plant: laxative: antidiabetic, diuretic, alcohol poisoning, inflammation, fever, antiseptic. In Mauritania, pulp mixed with salt is used as a liniment for rheumatism. Honey. Beekeeping. Ritual / Ceremony. Ceremonial.

Domestic use. Household utensils.


Arabs were the first to have knowledge of the properties of the fruits of this species, which was known in Europe as "tamarind from India. " The traders introduced it to Asia. The name derives from the Arabic "tamar" = Dates, and "Hindi" = Indian, meaning dátil of India, this being the name that gave rise to its botanical name: Tamarindus indica. The fruit was known since the Middle Ages in Europe and was described by Marco Polo in 1298 and in 1565 by Garcia D'Orta who described it as a precious resource.

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