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Dandelion; al. Löwenzahn; English. Dandelion.

Root, leaf.

The leaves are clustered at the base in rosettes, have dimmed in limbo petiole; are deeply divided in unequal triangular lobes. The chapters are composed of solitary ray florets and surrounded by yellow bracts and external reflex lanceolate.


The dandelion is a particularly common in wet meadows and fields and on the edges of roads. The intense polymorphism that characterizes the species is related to the existence of polyploid complex: in Europe have been described some 30 groups.

Chemical composition.

The sugar content in the root is very high: nearly 20% of fructose in the roots in spring and inulin (polymer of fructose) in variable amount: Up to 40% in autumn. It is noted the presence of an acyl - glucoside of the beta - hydroxy? Butyrolactone: the taraxacósido. Other compounds identified in the wake of dandelion from the mevalonic acid metabolism: lactones and bitter triterpenes.

• Lactones Sesquiterpenes. These compounds, very bitter, are either of heterósidos germacranólidos acids, or eudesmanólidos as tetrahidroridentina B or ß - glucoside of taraxacólido.

• triterpenes. They are derived from taraxastano, ie a skeleton similar to the Ursan: taraxasterol y? Taraxasterol. These two alcohols, unsaturated, differ by the position of the double bond: yuxtacíclico at 20. 30 or 20. 21 in intracíclico; are accompanied by their acetate and its derivative hydroxylated at 16: arnidiol and faradiol.

• Sterols. ß - sitosterol glucoside form of free; stigmasterol.

The leaves contain flavonoids, their potassium content is important and their bitterness is due to the heterósidos of lactones Sesquiterpenes. In the flowers are carotenoids.

Pharmacological data.

For its bitter principles, the root of dandelion (Taraxacum dens leonis) stimulates the secretion of the organs of digestion, and is used in gastric hipoacidez, lack of appetite and digestive disorders in general.

It has been proven scientifically that exerts a beneficial effect on liver function: the secretion of bile increases between two and four times. People predisposed to suffer from gallstones can be used preventively the root of Taraxacum. His action is based on the stimulation of the cellular function and metabolism in general.

The root of Taraxacum has properties colagogas colerética and it is used in the gallbladder and liver failure.

It also has a potent diuretic and natriuretic activity compared with most drugs liver. In this case it appears that the airline would be more active than the root.

It is used in slimming treatments. The root of Taraxacum is slightly laxative. All these properties are being used as depurative in rheumatism, gout and chronic eczema.

To test the effect of weight loss, a study was carried out on rats and mice and found that after administration of the plant, body weight in both animals decreased by 30%. It was also found the diuretic action and compared to the Furosemide. In this study demonstrates that the diuretic effect and saluretics is higher than that observed with other medicinal plants, and is comparable to that obtained with furosemide.

In the toxicological studies on acute and subacute phase has shown no toxicity (3 g / kg, 300 and 600 mg / kg / day of powdered drugs criomolida, rat, per os,

In Spain authorizing the use of this plant as colagogo and colerética. Facilitates the functions of the digestive and renal elimination. Adjuvant in slimming diets. As depurative in rheumatism, gout and chronic eczema.

The drug.

The tap root brown - black and wrinkled lengthwise, presents traces of the insertion of the secondary roots and, in some cases, the remains of leaf petiole at the top. Many laticíferos appear in concentric layers in the free secondary can be seen also in the drug spray, parenchymal cells are also big glasses and gridded. It is necessary to verify the absence of alkaloids tropánicos (possibility of confusion with the roots of Solanaceae) is also due to characterize the inulin - through the proceeds of the acid hydrolysis of this polymer - and lactones Sesquiterpenes.


P. Delaveau Pissenlit.

Act. Pharm. 257) 49 - 50, 1988.


Taraxacoside, a type of acylated g - butyrolactone glycosides from Taraxacum officinale.

Phytochemistry, 24, 1557 - 1559, 1985.


Sesquiterpene lactone BD - glucopyranoside sowie ein neues Eudesmanolid aus Taraxacum officinale.

Phytochemistry, 19, 857 - 861, 1980.

T. Kuusi, H. PYYSALO and K. AUTIER.

The bitterness properties of dandelion II. Chemical investigations.

Lebensm. Wiss. u. Technol. 18, 347 - 349, 1985.

H. Schilcher.

Pflanzliche Diuretika.

Urologist, 27, 215 - 222, 1987.


The action of Taraxacum officinale extracts on the body weight and urine output of laboratory animals.

Planta Med. 26, 212 - 217, 1974.

Pissenlit, toxicological dossier Laboratories Arkopharma.

Diseases whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.


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