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Annual herbaceous plant stems thin sheets alternate bi - or tripennatisectas, flowers whose color can range from yellow to orange yellow, grouped in small chapters long stalk, which bloom at the end of the rainy season.


Originally from the mountains of Peru and Bolivia, this species is abundant especially in the savannas and in the African highlands. Heliófila and is growing at the edge of the roads in uncultivated land near inhabited areas.

Chemical composition.

To this day, have been two main groups of components in C. Indicum flavonoid. It is also characteristic of this kind the presence of chlorogenic acid.

• Flavonoids: Besides a common Flavone (luteolina glycosylated at 7) the drug is characterized by the simultaneous presence of metabolites biogenetic very similar: flavanonas (7 eriodictiol glycosides in majority - e - isoocanina) chalcones (4' - glucosil ocanina = Mareína) and 2 - benzylidene cumaranonas (or auron) 6 - glucosil maritimetina. These substances are common in the Coreopsidíneas.

• Saponósidos: The two heterósidos isolated crisantelinas A - and B - Genina triterpenic have a derivative of an acid 3ß, 16 & alpha - dihydroxy Olean - 12 - en - 28 - oic acid equinocísticoand caulofilogenina. In both cases, the hydroxyl in 3 hemiacetals form a link with a glucose and carboxyl 28 esterifica by the same tetrasacárido ß - xilosilado (crisantelina A majority) or a - xilosilado (crisantelina B, 10 times less abundant)

• Saponósidos: The two heterósidos isolated crisantelinas A - and B - Genina triterpenic have a derivative of an acid 3ß, 16 & alpha - dihydroxy Olean - 12 - en - 28 - oic acid equinocísticoand caulofilogenina. In both cases, the hydroxyl in 3 hemiacetals form a link with a glucose and carboxyl 28 esterifica by the same tetrasacárido ß - xilosilado (crisantelina A majority) or a - xilosilado (crisantelina B, 10 times less abundant)

Animal studies have demonstrated a dual tropism of Chrysanthellum americanum: a liver, encourages and protects their role in attacks; vascular exercises at a vitamin P, that is, it reinforces the strength of the capillaries, decreased its permeability and increased venous tone.

The pharmacological activities of Chrysanthellum americanum are deducted from its composition:

• Flavonoids are hepatoprotective and encourage microcirculation.

• The saponosides are venotropos and are surface - active properties, potentiates the activity of flavonoids to facilitate passage through the cell membrane.

The animal pharmacology studies have shown:

Activity on the liver: Action colerética clear, smooth and prolonged. Hepatoprotective action against the intoxication with carbon tetrachloride. Major action against the intoxication with alcohol: not occur necrosis of the liver parenchyma. Protective action with respect to the toxic effects of adrenaline, 4 times that of vitamin C.

Activity vascular: For intravenously, there is a slight hypotension with bradycardia and peripheral vasodilation, comparable to the action of acetyl - choline.

There is also an activity antifibrilante.

• Anti - inflammatory activity: It verified causing edema carrageenan in the rat paw. Its activity is low orally, intraperitoneally but is higher than that of other anti - inflammatory.

Regarding the swelling caused by bradiquinina and serotonin, the effect exists but is less clear.

In toxicity studies performed in Beagle dogs, at doses up to 250 mg / kg / day for 1 month and 225 mg / kg / day for 182 days, was not seen any evidence of toxicity. The evolution of animal weight was normal. The autopsy was not observed any anomaly organic.

Observations on the Man.

Clinical studies as well as simple observations have been able to demonstrate the various indications admitted this drug on gastrointestinal symptoms, antilitiásica, hipolipidemiante, vascular disorders (arterial of the lower limbs and ophthalmology) and anti - inflammatory.

Under the term of gastrointestinal symptoms are grouped inadequacies liver, biliary disorders and intestinal disorders. The improvement of digestive symptoms observed in almost all cases. In cases where there was a polisintomatología, the improvement is due by 75% to joint hepato - biliary and 40% of the cases referred to the bowel function that is accompanied by improvement hepatobiliary. In all patients presenting isolated liver disorders, improvement is noted.

With regard to activity antilitiásica P. Coudercsays that 2000 has collected observations of renal stones, a hundred gallstones and some cases of salivary stones. The author argues that in the kidney stones, the treatment was almost always disappear micro - calculations, the largest concretions are often diminished in volume and generally stabilized. In the bile stone, the calculations do not calcified less than 3 mm in diameter disappear and the thicker volume decrease or stabilize. As for the salivary calculations, are removed or completely destroyed.

The results of the action hipolipidemiante are manifested in the following sense: it is noted increased activity on that pathological levels on physiological levels and triglycerides decreased more intensely than cholesterol.

Their action on arterial lower limb was tested against placebo, obtaining statistically significant results.

As for its anti - inflammatory activity, there are only a few animal studies and observations in humans that point to confirmation.


The drug is currently introduced in Europe. In case of failure of bile secretion, post - hepatitis, precirróticos states and dismetabolismos lipoprotéicos, their use is recommended in infusion or capsules of powdered drugs. The Chrysanthellum can be an adjuvant to treatment regimens of prophylactic renal stones. It might be of interest to his prolonged treatment in the treatment of symptoms due to venous insufficiency. The LD50 of the dry weight is 1 g / kg (ip, rat, mouse) and 0. 7 g / kg (iv, mouse) Has not been observed in chronic dog (225 mg / kg / day x 6 months) or mutagenic. A single dose of 4 g of extract per os does not cause any cases of mortality. Intolerances are children. During the tests carried out per os, rat, not criomolturado the acute toxicity of any kind (600 mg / kg) or subacute (300 and 500 mg / kg / day)

In Spain, authorizing the use of this plant as colerética. In symptomatic treatment of functional disorders of the skin capillary fragility, such as petechiae. Young circulatory disorders, such as intervening in hyperlipidemia. Subjective manifestations of venous insufficiency as tired legs and hemorrhoid symptoms.

The drug.

Until the recent revision of the genus by Turner, this species was confused with a species that is specific for the upcoming New World: C. americanum (L. Vatke = C. procumbens Rich. ex Pers. The species has americanum differently lobed leaves whole, as well as numerous involucral bracts, and winged achenes closely. Generally, the drug is presented in fragments that are rude fragments of stems and leaves, Chapters 8 - 10 mm in diameter, with one or two linear bracts with hollow leaves and yellow with semiflósculos ligule Trident, achenes 2 - 5 x 1 - 2 mm ovoid more or less compressed and fitted with a wing or cartilage rim of a cork. The testing of drugs includes the analysis of flavonoid content by thin - layer chromatography.



New species and combinations in Chrysanthellum (Asteraceae - Coreopsidae)

Phytologia, 51, 291 - 293, 1982.

D. HONORE - Thorez.

Description, identification and usages of Thérapeutiques Chrysanthellum "americanum": C. indicum DC. subsp. afroamericanum B. L. Turner.

J. Pharm. Belg. 40, 323 - 331, 1985.


The minor flavonoids. In: The flavonoids: advances in research, J. B. Harborne and T. J. Mabry, eds. Chapman and Hall, London, Chapman and Hall, P. 313 - 416, 1982; idem, in: The flavonoids: advances in research, since 1980, JB Harborne, ed. LonB. A. BOHM.

The minor flavonoids. In: T.


Confirmation of the structure of the chain oligosaccharidique of chrysanthelline A pair 13C NMR.

Planta Med. 42, 265 - 267, 1981.


B structure of chrysanthelline the, nouvelle isolée of saponin Chrysanthellum procumbens Rich.

Eur. J. Biochem. 108, 271 - 277, 1980.

H. Lievre and B. GUILLOT.

Le Chrysanthellum americanum.

Revue du jeune médecin, 06) 61 - 70, 1983.


Action antiradicalaire of flavonoids and extracts of Chrysanthellum indicum.

Plantes Méd. Phytother. 21, 131 - 137, 1987.

S. B. Mahat, S. K. And G. SARKAR Podda.

Triterpenes saponins.

Phytochemistry, 27, 3037 - 3067, 1988.

H. Lievre, B. GUILLOT and E. REYMOND.

Chrysanthellum. A hepatotropic, normolipémiant et vasculotrope - confirmations and acquisitions.

Journal du Jeune Praticien, 171, 1 - 8, 1984.


Etude de l'effet du Chrysanthellum americanum south of Lithia kidney.

Phytotherapy, 24) 19 - 20, 1988.


Antihepatotoxic flavonoids. In: Plant flavonoids in biology and medicine: biochemical, pharmacological and structure - activity relationships, V. Cody, E. MIDDLETON and J. B. Harborne, eds. New York, Alan R. Liss, P. 545 - 558, 1986.

Chrysanthellum, toxicological dossier Laboratories Arkopharma.

P. Couderc.

Chrysantellum americanum.

Phytotherapy, 1984, 10, 5 - 9.

Diseases whose treatment is appropriate in this plant.


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